Understanding and Describing Counseling Processes and Approaches

This activity is designed to assist you in understanding and describing various counseling processes and approaches. It will not only prepare you for the Master’s Comprehensive Exam but will also aid in preparing you to be an effective counselor should you choose to pursue a career in the field. You must use your skills to “hunt down” information to complete each item. To answer each question or complete each activity listed below, you may use the internet, the library, any articles and other resources provided on Canvas, or any counseling texts that you may have. You are also encouraged (though not required) to interview practicing mental health, college or career counselors to complete the assignment. (If a counselor is interviewed, please cite the interview per the APA manual- 6th edition). Submit your responses (complete, free of grammar and spelling errors) in MS Word document (12 – point font)

  1. Counseling Theories and the Relation to Counseling Process/Approach
  2. As discussed in module 1, theories provide a framework for “conceptualizing client problems and determining a course of action in counseling” (Halibur & Halibur, 2014 as cited in Erford, 2010). If you were a counselor today, how important would theory be in your current work? (Extra points: interview a practicing counselor about how they came to embrace particular theories and the relationship of those theories to their personal philosophies. Do counselors use different theories when working with individuals, groups or families?)
  3. Counseling Paradigms and Therapies
  4. Describe the psychodynamic paradigm and the counseling theories or therapies that are a part of this paradigm.
  5. Describe the Humanistic/Existential paradigm and the counseling theories or therapies that are a part of this paradigm.

III. What is action research, and how can it be helpful for professional counselors?

  1. Discuss the role of self-disclosure in the counseling process. How does the counseling relationship differ from other relationships?
  2. How do professional counselors employ empathy in their work with clients?
  3. What is resistance? When clients show resistance to certain topics, the counselor should do what?

VII. What is rapport and why is it important? Discuss the importance of building rapport with clients and four ways that a counselor can facilitate this process. Do you think it would it be particularly important to build rapport with non-traditional students in a college setting? Why or why not?

VIII. Describe how a counselor’s vocal tone can affect clients’ perceptions of and reactions to the counselor.

  1. In Module 1 you were asked to reflect on your personal reasons for desiring to learn more about the field of Counseling. However, counselors must also develop the skill of reflecting – which is different from self-reflection. After viewing the micro-skills PowerPoint, viewing the Reflecting video and reading about the importance of micro skills, describe the purpose of reflecting feelings and the effects that accurate reflecting can have on clients.
  2. Identify and describe the basic components/steps in the non-judgmental listening cycle. Why is it described as non-judgmental?