Present an overall description of what management entails and how it is properly
According to Mary Parker Follet, management can be defined as the “art of getting things done
through people” F. W. Taylor on the other hand defined management as the “art of knowing
what you want to do and then seeing that it is done the best and cheapest way.” From the above
definitions, it can be derived that managers themselves do not get involved in the work itself but
organize a taskforce in such a way that the others perform the errands which they are best suited
to perform for the overall purpose of achieving the set goals of the organization.
Management basically involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of the junior
workers so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively (Drucker, P. F, 1986).
Efficiency in this context refers to the ability of obtaining the ultimate output from limited inputs
for the sole purpose of minimizing the cost of the resources. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of
the management is what will facilitate the completion of the organizational set goals and targets.
Ideally, coordinating and overseeing the work of others is what differentiates a managerial
position from a non-managerial one (Labovitz, G., Rosansky, V., & Varian, T, 1994). More often
than not, it will entail grouping together organizational material and human resources and
channeling them to the utilization of the scarce resources efficiently and effectively to achieve
the overall organizational goals.
To properly implement its roles, the management of the organization has to be systematic and
organized in carrying out its functions. This can be facilitated through: planning, organizing,
staffing, directing and controlling the organizational activities.
Planning involves defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and
developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities (Sink, D. S., & Tuttle, T. C, 1989). The
management is involved with the duty of formulating objectives, policies, procedure, rules and
budgets of the organization (Dr. M. Thenmozhi, 2000). Based on some logic methods, an
organization cannot thrive without a well structured strategic plan.
To co-ordinate both human and non-human resources for purposes of achieving the overall goal
of the organization, a management has to incorporation the organization function. Through good
organization, the mission and activities of the organization are arranged and structured in such a
way that the set goals and targets are attained.
Leading can be said to be the process in which managers direct and influence the actions of their
juniors by means of creation of an enabling environment for carrying out the normal business
chores. In other words, leading entails performing duties with and through people to accomplish
the organizations’ goals.
This is the forth function of a management. Basically, controlling can be said to be the
monitoring, comparing and correcting work performance by managers who are prudent enough
to correct and align the organization with its main objectives. It facilitates sustaining the
organization to its going concern.
2. Describe the give examples or how challenges managers face in today’s world is
characterized by uncertainty, ambiguity and sudden changes or threats from the
Organizations do not operate in vacuum but rather operate in systems which are larger than itself.
These systems constitute the environment. However, the challenges and threats that managers
face in the environment they are operating in are as discussed below.
The diversity of the employees.
Proletariats in an organization have heterogeneous characteristics in terms of gender, age, race,
and ethnicity. These differences bring about great variations in terms of attitudes and the
working styles among the employees. Accommodating diverse groups of people, addressing their
lifestyles, family needs, and work styles is a major challenge facing the managers. There exist
great difficulty in blending the knowledge, skills and ambitions and experiences of diverse group
of employees. In actual sense, the success of the manager is dependent on the employees work
Moreover, the talented and innovative employees are usually in constant pursuit of ‘greener
pastures’ and new opportunities. It is not a wonder that some of them open secret enterprises to
compete with the firm hence acting ultra vires through rendering unfair and unethical business
practices. Nevertheless, the trade secrets of the organization are at risk of exposure by employees
to the outside competitors. This also makes the enterprise to vulnerable to defeat by its
competitions who implement the secrets given to them by the unethical employees.
Allocation of Resources.
Among the major roles of manager is to make critical organizational decisions which involve re-
organizing the limited financial and human resources of the company. Success will only be
witnessed when the resources are allocated adequately and properly. According to Metz, E.
(1984), institutions especially the miniature ones stand to lose a lot whenever they
misappropriate the organizational funds and resources. In this case, managers face a great
challenge when it comes to make decisions on how to utilize the resources, on when to acquire
new resource and how to distribute them among various department of the organization.
As the business expands and grows due to economies of scale, it is usually constrained by capital
needs. Many are the times when the profit obtained from one operating cycle becomes
insufficient to fund extra working capital required for the next operating cycle. Raising capital
through acquiring loans is usually subject to consideration lest it leads the company to vicious
debt crisis. The managers in this scenario face encumbrances when it comes to outsourcing
limited capital. They are hence constrained to expand most of the operations of the company.
Poor managerial skills and styles.
Most managers do not know which roles to delegate and they end up doing all the duties at the
expense of the skilled employees in the organization. Moreover, when assigning roles to the
employees, they do it wrongly leading the mismatch of expertise in the organization. The overall
result is the downfall of the organization arising from the employees armature employees duties
which they have not experience in.
A weakness could exist in the finance, marketing or the advertising department. Lack of skills to
spot and identify the weakness will continue to dwarf the efforts of the company to grow. Lack
of technical skills to run the structures and machineries by employees may thwart the efforts of
the company to operate on them. Since managers are entrusted with the role of identifying
potential sources of raw materials, expertise to operate on the equipments, it may be difficult for
managers to obtain raw materials or even spare part of machinery and materials for production.
Opposition to change.
Change is inevitable and is a fundamental aspect of historical revolution. Change cannot take
place in vacuum but change in structure, technology and people. The rapidly changing external
environment fuelled by advancement in technology and increased information processing power
brought about the digital technology is a great threat to the managers. Most of the convectional
services have been replaced with automated services have gradually replaced the self services. A
lot of banking nowadays is usually done online. What’s more? The internet provides a platform
for purchasing books online and watching television online.
The setback of these all is that the effort by managers to bring about changes is often met by
massive opposition as most employees do not readily embrace unless it directly benefits. This is
probably due to the fact that change brings about uncertainty and indeed it does. Managers
experience a hard time trying to incorporate change in the organization in terms of adopting new
production methods, new advertising means for outdoing competitors and new pricing methods
Cases of corporate lying, misrepresentations, financial manipulations have been widespread in
recent years. Though most managers try their level best to maintain a high code of conduct, few
succeed in incorporating the same through the employees in the organization. This can partly be
explained by variation in the cultural attitudes towards time and productivity. Many employees
behave in a certain manner due to the existence of vast culture. It is left to the manager to
oversee that the ethics and interest of the company is not compromised. This however, is usually
a daunting errand to managers.
Hostile and unpredictable political climate.
The work of manager is to preside over the company. They are the stewards of the corporation.
However, frequent changes in government regulations and policies brought about by politics are
a major blow to the managers. It becomes difficult to operate organizations where the employees
perceive different political views. Politics brings about corruption, ethnic discriminations as well
as bias among different departments in the organization.
On the other hand, changing of laws and regulations of banks and taxes is a great setback
especially to managers running organizations with different branches. These rapid fluctuations
lead to problem in the reporting and comparing operations.
3. Describe the skills that are important for managers to have to be successful under these
existing conditions today.
Effective managers are those that are skillful. It is only the skillful managers who will steer the
company towards achieving its success as well as its set objectives. To perform challenging
duties and activities, managers are required to skillful decision makers in addition to being
innovative. Robert L. Katz outlined the following skills that managers should posses.
These are job-specific knowledge skills and techniques needed to perform specialized tasks.
These skills enable one to use tools, procedures and techniques in specialized field and are only
acquired through training. It is paramount for the first line managers involved with the real
operations of the firm to have technical skills at hand.
These are also known as human skills. These techniques are skills are helpful in enabling one to
work, understand and motivate the other individuals or groups. A good example of this skill is
the ability to bear with someone else’s position and to present ones position in a reasonable and
amicable manner as well. Since the management is basically involved with getting work done by
people, human skills are of great essence. It goes without saying that interpersonal skills are a
must-have for human resource managers dealing with clients.
Conceptual skills encompass having the mental ability of thinking and conceptualizing about
abstract and complex situations when coordinating and integrating all the organization’s interest
and activities (Beckhard, R, 1989). A manager who spots a rare opportunity which has never
been identified before by any person and exploits it successfully can be said to have excellent
conceptual skills. Top managers with conceptual skills help their organizations to stand out
among the rest of the organizations.
These are skills which are used to define and understand situations and events and are mainly
geared towards solving a problem (Metz, E, 1984). When a manager notices of too much waste
around the surrounding and moves ahead to define the cause of the menace before finally
initiating steps to solve the problem, he/she is practicing diagnostic skills.
4. Illustrate some of the qualities that are important to managers today to function under
Visionary and mission oriented.
In management, continual improvement and response to customer needs and expectations is the
best way to describe a growing firm. A prudent manager sets out the missions and visions of the
company and undertakes the necessary steps create a healthy and conducing environment for
every employee to carry out tasks perfectly. This facilitates continued performance of work.
Ability to learn and acquire Knowledge.
Change trends and trends in an organization is a constant thing. According to Braham, B. J.
(1995), to be successful, managers need to be creative and smart in thinking. This implies that
they should be eager to continuously learn, adapt and accept change.
They must have the ability to cultivate a learning culture where organization members
systematically gather knowledge and share it with others so as to achieve better performances.
Having Ego strength.
It measures the strength of one’s convictions. A manager who has high ego strength resists
impulses to act unethically and is likely to do what is right for the organization.
It is only the optimistic managers who follow maximax choices, meaning that they are associated
with maximizing the maximum possible payoffs. Pessimistic managers on the other hand pursue
maximin choices meaning that they are involved with maximizing the minimum possible payoff.
5. Relate the issues above to a scenario and assessment of yourself as a manager in five
years’ time. Include a vision of the organization you will be in and the role you would like
to play. Also include a discussion of steps you need to take to strengthen your skills to be
successful in your dream managerial role.
As a manager, the vision I have for my organization is to see it scale to greater heights and attain
a world class status.
Organizational operations are no longer limited to national borders. As a manager, I will be
involved with schemes which entail innovating new opportunities and challenges inherent in
globalization of business. I will enroll a part time consultant who will be involved in providing
the right directions to take as well as help in making prudent decisions which are of great
importance to the organization as a whole. Lack of focus, ignoring risks in the assessment of
alternatives, failure to plan is some of the drawbacks which can be experienced by the
organization as a result of poor managerial skills (Drucker, P. F, 1986). Therefore, they should
be taken with a lot of seriousness.
To tackle challenges of managerial styles, I will use the following styles of leadership:
MBO (management by objectives)
To tackle the challenges of managerial styles, I will administer use this systematic approach that
facilitate the achievement of results of directing efforts towards attainable goals. Doherty, L. M.
(1993, April 27), urges that MBO system of management is good for purposes of planning for
the future uncertain occurrences.
This will further be harnessed by the undertaking a SWOT analysis of the organization so as to
know the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats that face the organization.
This system of governance involves analyzing several managerial styles which aid at assisting
the organization to make the best decision using the best style identified.
Ways to foster good corporate governance include:
Enhancing ethics, integrity and responsibility.
High levels of integrity and ethics must be maintained. Abuse of powers, corruptions, laziness,
conflict of interests and other such vices can ruin all organizations (Ackoff, R. L, 1981). The
people appointed to new organizations must be fair, transparent and responsive.
This is by thorough screening the applicants and passing them througha vigorous scrutinizations
when hiring them. In order to get the most talented employees, I will ensure the requirements of
attaining a certain job post are put into great consideration.
Payment of high wages upon performance.
Basin on the fact that high wages are an incentive in attracting and retaining potential employees,
my organization will offer attractive job terms to ensure that an employee gets the value of
his/her work. Good managers share their rewards with the employees whenever the company is
successful. This motivates the employees to offer their services better quality. This is also to
indicate of how I treasure workers.
Promoting interaction between the employees through sensitivity training.
In order to achieve the openness with others, reduce ethnic differences and tribalism, awareness
and group understanding, enhancing the listening skills, greater appreciation of one another; as a
manager, I will undertake the necessary steps in promoting the unity of the employees.
Organization of tasks.
This will involve creating groups which are representative of management for situations and
decisions. It basically involves the formation of experimental groups to encourage participants to
experiment and innovate and develop means of evaluating concequences of a creative action
This technique will be aimed at developing effective management teams by actually solving
problems associated with the running of the management. Right from the onset of the
organization, I will strategies on effective means of solving problems by assigning certain
problems to certain teams or department. The department that analyses the problem will be the
one to determine the underlying causes.
Training and skill development.
As a matter of fact, great companies spend millions of funds to upgrade their machinery and
purchase computers, stationeries, labs etcetera. To foster a competitive advantage, upgrading the
machinery of the organization as well as purchasing the latest and update equipments in order to
boost production in order to stay right ahead of my competitors is compulsory (Kanji, G. K. &
Ed, 1995). This will also be accompanied by training the employees to develop their skills in
operating the equipments.
Assignment of Job duties.
As a manager, I will be hell-bent in assigning the responsibilities to the right personnel so as to
promote specialization among employees. Specialization brings promotes professionalism in
duties in such a way that an employee is assigned a task which he/she is best suited to carry out.
This will also reduce the likelihood of spending lots of money in attending to damages brought
about by inexperienced employees in a given task.
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