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Nursing Assignment on Searching and Critiquing the Evidence

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Nursing Assignment on Searching and Critiquing the Evidence

Searching and Critiquing the Evidence

Bring to mind the various practice problems you and your colleagues have been considering in this course. What insights might the literature provide with regard to these issues? How should you evaluate the research? And, why is it important to review and critique this information?
This Discussion addresses strategies for searching the literature in order to critique existing evidence. Please note that this Discussion is related to Application Assignment #4, which is assigned this week. You are strongly encouraged to read through that assignment now.

To prepare:
Review the Walden Library Webinars presented in the Learning Resources.
Recall the practice problem and theoretical framework you identified for the Week 5 Discussion. Using the Walden Library and other professional databases, conduct a search and locate four (4) appropriate primary research articles one of which is a systematic review.
Review the articles and determine what level of evidence they represent. Using the critique strategies presented in the Learning Resources as a guide, consider how the articles you located either support or weaken the merit of your theoretical framework or the importance of your practice problem.
post a cohesive response that addresses the following:
How does the literature strengthen or weaken the merit of your selected theoretical framework and practice problem?
What levels of evidence are most prevalent in these articles?
Why do you think that level of evidence is most prevalent?

References
Gray, J.R., Grove, S.K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.
• Chapter 3, “Introduction to Quantitative Research”

Chapter 3 provides an overview of quantitative research, the concepts associated with this type of research, and different quantitative research designs.
• Chapter 4, “Introduction to Qualitative Research”

Chapter 4 describes the philosophy of qualitative research and provides examples of how it is used in nursing research. Understanding the basic principles of quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to effectively critique research literature.
• Chapter 7, “Review of Relevant Literature”

Chapter 7 examines the process of preparing for a literature review to support research efforts.
• Chapter 13, “Outcomes Research”
Moran, K., Burson, R., & Conrad, D. (2020). The doctor of nursing practice scholarly project: A framework for success (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
• Chapter 6, “Developing the DNP Project”

Armola, R., Bourgault, A., Halm, M., Board, R., Bucher, L., Harrington, L., & … Medina, J. (2009). AACN levels of evidence: What’s new? Critical Care Nurse, 29(4), 70-73. doi:10.4037/ccn2009969

This article provides a hierarchical evidence rating system which can be used as a guide to determine the quality and level of evidence presented in different types of research studies.

Elkins, M. Y. (2010). Using PICO and the brief report to answer clinical questions. Nursing, 40(4), 59-60. doi:10.1097/01.NURSE.0000369871.07714.39

The article explains how to use the PICO method to develop clinical questions.

Fineout-Overholt, E., Melnyk, B., Stillwell, S., & Williamson, K. (2010). Critical appraisal of the evidence: Part I an introduction to gathering, evaluating, and recording the evidence… fifth in a series. American Journal of Nursing, 110(7), 47–52. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000383935.22721.9c

This article discusses the process of rapid critical analysis of research and literature through the categorization of studies and utilization of an evaluation table.

Fineout-Overholt, E., Melnyk, B., Stillwell, S., & Williamson, K. (2010). Critical appraisal of the evidence: Part III the process of synthesis: Seeing similarities and differences across the body of evidence. American Journal of Nursing, 110(11), 43-51. doi:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000390523.99066.b5

This article continues the discussion of critical analysis of evidence and concludes with how nurses can then make decisions based on a synthesis of the findings.

Duke University Medical Center Library. (2009). Evidence-based clinical practice resources: Hierarchy of evidence-based medicine (EBM) resources. Retrieved from http://guides.mclibrary.duke.edu/content.php?pid=274373&sid=2289252

Duke University provides this visual representation of levels of evidence.

University of Illinois at Chicago. (n.d.) Evidence-based practice in the health sciences: Levels of evidence. Retrieved from http://ebp.lib.uic.edu/nursing/node/12

This web-based tutorial provides an overview of evidence-based practice and includes a section on developing practice questions for evidence-based projects.

Evidence-Based Nursing. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://ebn.bmj.com/

This website surveys a wide range of international clinical journals and includes only those research articles that demonstrate high quality and validity.

Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Library (n.d.). Finding evidence in PubMed. Retrieved from http://library.medicine.yale.edu/tutorials/577

The Joanna Briggs Institute (n.d.). Retrieved from http://joannabriggs.org/

This international organization was created by the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Adelaide in South Australia and provides members with access to systematic reviews and other research efforts.

Walden University. (2017). Library webinar archives: Nursing. Retrieved from https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/library/webinararchives/nursing

 

  • A PG coursework coversheet should be included with the essay (available on the SPS PG common room Moodle page). The coversheet should include the following information: (1) your matriculation number (NOT your name); (2) the course title; (3) the Course Convenor‘s name; (4) the question title; and (5) two word counts (with and without the bibliography).

  About the Essay Plan:     ESSAY WRITING: THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR

  • Reference your sources in the text using the Harvard System.
  • Include a bibliography.
  • Cite page numbers when you quote someone‘s work.
  • Use footnotes sparsely (if at all), and check how it is done in the literature.
  • Use quotations sparsely (frequent use often reflects insecurity on your part; try to rephrase the author‘s words instead), and make sure that they illustrate your point.
  • Avoid colloquialisms, slang, or chatty language.

Organisation

  • Introduce your work by addressing the question and/or saying how you are going to answer, and/or warning the reader of what direction your answer will take. The content of your introduction is a matter of style but it is important that your essay has a recognisable introductory section.
  • Conclude/round your work off firmly. Don‘t leave it hanging in mid-air.
  • There should be a logical order to the points you make.
  • Avoid repetition. Instead, forward/back reference.
  • Indicate explicitly how your points affect your argument. Don‘t let points speak for themselves.

Use of examples

  • Use examples for illustration:
    1. i)  to show your understanding of some theoretical point to the reader.
    2. ii)  as a way to test your own ideas (you can do this explicitly, to show your awareness of the complexity of the points you make);

iii) to follow your ideas through and take your argument into more depth.

  • Generally, examples can be very effectively used to discipline your thoughts, enhance their complexity and test their accuracy. This makes your work clearer, more complex and interesting to read.
  • Avoid examples for their own sake (i.e. redundancy).

  Problematic conclusions

  • Arguing one case without acknowledging criticisms of this case. This makes the reader wonder whether you were aware of the other side to the argument.
  • Not showing where you stand ultimately (i.e. not concluding at all, but merely presenting the different sides).
  • Not concluding on the topic you started off addressing.
  • Bringing new points into the conclusion which you have not argued in your text.
  • Not having a conclusion at all.

Other good advice

  • Avoid using ̳etc.‘ It is a sign of lazy thinking.
  • Avoid sexist language. It is often incorrect. (E.g. Don‘t use ̳man‘ for ̳human‘/‘people‘, ̳his‘ for ̳his/her‘, ̳he‘ for s/he‘, ̳mankind‘ for ̳humankind‘ and so on. You can also avoid this problem by using the plural instead.)
  • Avoid redundancy (e.g. ̳societies or groups of people‘). Make up your mind about which suits the sentence best.
  • Avoid expressing doubts about your argument (e.g. Instead of ̳I will try to show …‘, write ̳I will show…‘). It weakens your case.
  • Avoid overstatements, and use words like ̳very‘ sparingly. You lose credibility.

Common spelling/grammatical errors

  • phenomenon/phenomena, criterion/criteria
  • effect/affect, intend/intent
  • occurrence, to occur
  • possessive ̳s‘ has an apostrophe (e.g. John‘s book)
  • there/their/they‘re
  • then/than
  • except (…in certain cases)/accept (receive, admit)

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