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Exercise 1-1: A Person Whose Performance Could Be Improved

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Exercise 1-1: A Person Whose Performance Could Be Improved

Exercise 1-1: A Person Whose Performance Could Be Improved

Step 1: Select a Person

Think of a co-worker or subordinate whose work performance (by your standards) could be improved. Overall, he or she may be an average, a below average, or even an above average performer.

The person you select should:

  • be an immediate subordinate, a co-worker, or a person one level in the organization beneath your own.
  • not be close to retirement, a part-time employee, a temporary employee, or a person whose performance is at or near the “bottom of the barrel.”
  • hold a job with which you are familiar, e.g., you may have held the job yourself or you may have supervised the job for a long enough period that you have a good understanding of its day-to-day requirements.

Step 2: Provide Reasons for Performance

In the space provided on the next few pages, present your analysis of the situation by listing in point form up to six reasons explaining why the person performs as he or she does.

There is no set of right or wrong reasons. This is to be your personal assessment of the situation.

Step 3: Weight the Reasons

Beneath each of the spaces allocated for a reason, there are three scales:

  • The first asks you to what degree you feel this particular reason contributes to the person’s level of motivation.
  • The second asks you whether you feel the reason you have listed suggests the jobholder is to some degree at fault or personally responsible for the below-par performance.
  • The third asks you to assess the degree to which the organization’s management system (e.g., the nature of the job, supervision, the reward system) is responsible.

For any given reason, it is possible that the reason implies that either the person or the management system or both are responsible for the below par performance.

 

 

Step 4: Provide Examples

Provide examples that support the weighting you gave your reason by describing a few specific things that the person actually does or does not do that lead you to see him or her as not performing as well as he or she might. Be as specific as possible and try to describe three or more things. For example, you might write things like “he arrives late for work” or “she complains about her job.”

Step 5: Identify Solutions with No Limitations

Assume that you are in a position of authority and have unlimited resources in the organization. Recommend a solution by describing precisely what you would do to improve the situation. Do not limit yourself in any way to what is possible in the particular situation or the organization. Assume that you and the organization have whatever resources and rights that you need to do anything that you feel is warranted. Of course, in reality this is not likely to be the case.

Step 6: Identify Solutions with Practical Limitations

Now let’s be practical. You probably don’t have total power and you may not be the person’s supervisor. However, assume that you are the supervisor. Given the practical realities of your organization, what solutions, if any, would you recommend to correct the problem? If you feel that your hands are completely tied and that you could do nothing useful, say so. You do not have to recommend a change.

 

 

Reason 1: Low effort on the part of the employee.

 

 

1.     To what degree does this particular reason contribute to the person’s level of motivation?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √)          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

2.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the person himself or herself is responsible for the below par performance?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √)          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

3.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system (the job design, reward system, supervision, etc.) is responsible?

        NOT AT ALL              ( √)          (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

 

Examples:

The employee has been known by colleagues to engage too much in personal conversations at work while showing little to no dedication to the work he does. Unlike his colleagues, the employee shows no real dedication to the job or a willingness to do more than what is expected of him. 

 

Solutions with No Limitations: As an authority figure for this particular employee, I would have a private chat with the employee about his performance at work and make it clear that outstanding performance is expected of every employee.This would also give me a chance to outline the consequences of not carrying out daily responsibility with the utmost competence.

 

 

Solutions with Practical Limitations: The management should assign more responsibilities and set clear goals for the employee. A distracted employee could indicate a failure on the part of management in addition to the shortcomings of the employee himself. It could be an indication that the employee has no set goals to achieve when at work. It would seem unlikely that an employee who has enough work to do would engage in other unproductive activities.

 

 

Reason 2: Lack of technical depth.

 

 

1.     To what degree does this particular reason contribute to the person’s level of motivation?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √ )         (   )          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

2.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the person himself or herself is responsible for the below par performance?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          ( √)          (   )          (   )          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

3.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system (the job design, reward system, supervision, etc.) is responsible?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          ( √ )         (   )          (   )          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

 

Examples:

The employee has had a hard time adapting to new technologies and changing requirements at work. This can be an impediment as flexibility and adaptability is an essential quality that helps employees navigates through a dynamic and ever changing work environment.

 

Solutions with No Limitations:

Having an employee who lacks the technical skills to navigate through daily activities can hamper the performance of the entire department. As the employees superior I could offer further training to the employee. One excellent way of helping such an employee is putting him under the supervision and guidance of a more experienced employee.

 

Solutions with Practical Limitations:

I would recommend to management to introduce a training program to help all employees who might not be technically proficient. The training could take the form of a seminar where all employees could be instructed in order to improve their technical expertise at work. I would further recommend that such training be carried out whenever a fundamental technology is introduced at work.

 

Reason 3: The employee has a bad attitude towards the work he does.

 

 

1.     To what degree does this particular reason contribute to the person’s level of motivation?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √)          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

2.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the person himself or herself is responsible for the less than excellent performance?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √)          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

3.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system (the job design, reward system, supervision, etc.) is responsible for the less than excellent performance?

        NOT AT ALL              ( √ )         (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

 

Examples:

The employee has been known to complain constantly to colleagues about how unsatisfied or unhappy he is with the work that he does. While this is fairly common and could be indicative of a failure by the establishment at making the employee comfortable at work, in other instances it could be indicative of the fact that the employee is simply lazy or does not want to work.

 

Solutions with No Limitations:

I believe that people can change their behaviour if given the right opportunity to do so. As such, I would give the employee fair warning privately in order to highlight the problem and to give them a fair opportunity to rehabilitate. Two chances are enough for someone to receive a warning and if the employee persists with such a callous attitude at work, it may be grounds for disciplinary action such as suspension or termination.

 

 

Solutions with Practical Limitations:

Employee disengagement is a common problem that many organizations have to contend with. It is often an indication that the employee does not feel like part of the organization or is out of touch with the mission, vision and values of the organization.

If the problem is widespread in the organization, I would recommend that efforts be made to reengage the employees. This can include setting goals together with employees, creating a culture of opportunity and appreciating the efforts of employees when credit is due.

 

 

Reason 4:

The employee is always late for work.

 

 

1.     To what degree does this particular reason contribute to the person’s level of motivation?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √)          (   )          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

2.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the person himself or herself is responsible for the less than excellent performance?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          ( )            ( √ )         (   )          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

3.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system (the job design, reward system, supervision, etc.) is responsible for the less than excellent performance?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (√)           (   )          (   )          (   )          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

 

Examples:

The employee seems to come late on most days of the week and gives various excuses to explain himself. This lateness often means that he misses out on important group meetings or that he works less hours. This can have a negative impact on overall performance at work and can be an impediment in achieving organizational goals.

 

Solutions with No Limitations:

Lateness is not always an indication that en employee is undedicated or lazy. It could be an indication that the person has too many personal or domestic engagements that make it difficult for them to arrive at work on time. In my experience, many working mothers for example have a hard time getting to work on time due to domestic duties such as preparing their children to school or getting them to a check-up with the doctor. As such, I would try to have a candid conversation privately with the employee and see how we can help the employee manage his time properly and get to work on time.Possible solutions for lateness could be recommending that the board arrange for transportation for the employees or establishing flexible working hours.

If it established that the reasons for the lateness are entirely avoidable, this would necessitate disciplinary action such as warnings, deductions, suspension or termination whichever is appropriate for the particular situation.

 

 

Solutions with Practical Limitations:

Lateness is a complex issue that could as a result of various factors such as an inefficient transport system in the city or other underlying challenges. An ethical organization should attempt to investigate the cause of employee lateness in order to take measured steps to curb the problem.

 

Reason 5:

The employee is not a team player.

 

1.     To what degree does this particular reason contribute to the person’s level of motivation?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √ )         VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

2.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the person himself or herself is responsible for the less than excellent performance?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √)          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

3.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system (the job design, reward system, supervision, etc.) is responsible for the less than excellent performance?

        NOT AT ALL              ( √ )         (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

 

Examples:

The employee fails to attend team meetings on time, does not complete reports and presentations on time, is uncooperative and disruptive at work, and has a hostile attitude towards tem members.

In addition to these, the employee also resists feedback for supervisors and colleagues and has been known to have poor people skills when addressing issues in the office.

 

Solutions with No Limitations:

Not being a team player not only affects the ability of the performance of the culprit in the organization but also the employees around him and ultimately the entire company. Teamwork represents a crucial aspect of the organization’s activities and as such, having an employee who is unwilling and or incapable of working with others can be a significant obstacle to the goals of the organization. The best way to handle inappropriate characters in the organization could be suspension or termination.

 

Solutions with Practical Limitations:

I would recommend that the human resource department take steps to ensure that the individual is reprimanded or disciplined.

 

Reason 6:

Overall financial constraints in the organization.

 

1.     To what degree does this particular reason contribute to the person’s level of motivation?

        NOT AT ALL              ()             (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √ )         VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

2.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the person himself or herself is responsible for the less than excellent performance?

        NOT AT ALL              ( √)          (   )          (  )           (   )          (  )           VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

3.     To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system (the job design, reward system, supervision, etc.) is responsible for the less than excellent performance?

        NOT AT ALL              (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √)          VERY MUCH

                                                  1              2              3              4            5

 

Examples:

Working for an organization that is experiencing financial constraints can affect motivation and increase stress levels ultimately diminishing performance levels. This is because financial constraints can necessitate downsizing and layoffs in order to keep the company profitable. Such a situation can cause remaining employees to be anxious about their future employment prospects and cause disengagement and stress.

 

Solutions with No Limitations:

The company should make efforts to assure employees that their employment is secure in order to avert mass panic, disengagement and ultimate decline in performance.

 

Solutions with Practical Limitations:

Financial constraints are common problems that companies have to contend with from time to time. The causes of such difficulties are often external and the top management might not necessarily have any influence over the underlying issue.  The best that the organization can do is to manage the situation with measured responses.

Step 7: Evaluate performance

Now answer the following questions:

1.     How does the person’s performance compare to the performance of others at his or her same level or holding the same job? Compared to other jobholders at this same level, this person’s performance is:

        WELL ABOVE AVERAGE                       (   )

        SOMEWHAT ABOVE AVERAGE                         (  )

        ABOUT AVERAGE                                                    (   )

        SOMEWHAT BELOW AVERAGE                         ( √ )

        WELL BELOW AVERAGE                                       (   )

2.     This person could improve:

        IN ALL AREAS OF HIS OR HER JOB   (   )

        IN MOST, BUT NOT ALL AREAS                         ( √)

        IN SEVERAL AREAS                                 (   )

        IN JUST ONE OR TWO AREAS                             (   )

3.     How long has the person’s performance been less than excellent?

        MORE THAN 1 YEAR                                              (   )

        FOR ABOUT 6 MONTHS TO 1 YEAR  (   )

        FOR ABOUT 3 TO 6 MONTHS                               ( √ )

        FOR THE LAST FEW MONTHS ONLY               (   )

4.     Indicate how the person’s general level of performance compares to your own general level of performance by checking the scale for the person and for yourself.

        PERSON                      MYSELF                               OVERALL PERFORMANCE IS:

            (   )                                    ( √)                                    Well above average

            (   )                                    (   )                                    Somewhat above average

            (   )                                    (   )                                    About average

            ( √)                                    (   )                                    Somewhat below average

            (   )                                    (   )                                    Well below average

5.     What is your relationship to the person?

        Have you held the same position?                       YES ( √)                  NO (   )

        Are you the person’s supervisor?                          YES (   )                  NO ( )

        Are you a personal friend?                                      YES ( )                  NO (   )

        Is the person                                                           MALE (  )        FEMALE (   )

 

Exercise 1-2: A Motivated Time at Work

Step 1: Identify a Time of High Motivation

Think of a time on a job when you were highly motivated or when you were more motivated than usual. You may have willingly taken work home with you, worked long hours, arrived at work early, left late, taken short or no breaks, and worked to or near your maximum effort.

If necessary, you can select only part of a job. In other words there may have been other parts of the job about which you were not enthusiastic.  If this is the case, focus only on the part of the job that did motivate you.

The time period you choose should be one during which you were working full-time and had been for more than six months. However, this does not mean that you were continuously enthusiastic about all aspects of your job during that period.

Step 2: Write a Description

I remember a time when our department of the company was assigned a complex project that was to be completed in about one month. The goals of the project were established together as a team and the contribution of each member was considered. There were additional incentives for completing the project on or before the predicted time frame. This greatly motivated me to work harder than usual and exert myself. This was also one of my most enjoyable work experiences.

Step 3: Describe Reasons for Your Motivation

Describe the reasons that you feel were responsible for your enthusiasm about the job. Try to remember what it was that was affecting you so strongly. Give your reasons weights from 1 to 5 to signify the degree to which you feel they contributed to your motivation. (1 = Low Importance, 5 = Very Important).

Reason 1:

I felt valued as a team member over the course of the project.

 

 

LOW IMPORTANCE       (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √)          VERY IMPORTANT

                                                  1              2              3              4              5

 

 

Reason 2:

There were various incentives for completing the job in good time.

 

LOW IMPORTANCE       (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          (√)           VERY IMPORTANT

                                                  1              2              3              4              5

 

Reason 3:

There was a great work environment with various recreational amenities that could be used during breaks.

 

LOW IMPORTANCE       (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √ )         (   )          VERY IMPORTANT

                                                  1              2              3              4              5

 

Reason 4:

The project involved working with inner city kids many of whom are underprivileged. This brought additional satisfaction and value to the work that we were doing.

 

LOW IMPORTANCE       (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √ )         VERY IMPORTANT

                                                  1              2              3              4              5

Step 4:

Indicate your level of performance at the time compared to others at your level in the organization.

WELL ABOVE AVERAGE                               ( √)

SOMEWHAT ABOVE AVERAGE (   )

ABOUT AVERAGE                                            (   )

SOMEWHAT BELOW AVERAGE (   )

WELL BELOW AVERAGE                               (   )

 

Exercise 1-3: An Unmotivated Time at Work

Step 1: Identify Time Period of Unmotivated Performance

Think of a time in your present job or during a previous job during whichyour own performance could have been improved.

You may select a part of a job rather than the whole job. It should be a job that you held for a minimum of six months, but you do not have to have been continuously unenthusiastic about all aspects of the job during this time.

Step 2: Describe the Job

I worked at a local fast food restaurant as a cook for six months as a teenager to make extra income.

 

Step 3: Describe Reasons for Poor Motivation

Describe up to six reasons for your dampened enthusiasm about the job.

Reason 1:

Long working hours with few breaks. In addition to this, I had to ask for permission from my supervisor in order to take bathroom breaks which I felt infringed on my freedom.

 

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that you were responsible for the less than excellent performance?

NOT AT ALL      ( √ )         (  )           (  )           (  )           (  )           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5           

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system was responsible?

NOT AT ALL      (  )           (  )           (  )           (  )           (√ )          VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5

Weight the reasons to indicate their importance in contributing to your lack of motivation.

LOW IMPORTANCE       (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √ )         VERY IMPORTANT

                                                  1              2              3              4              5

 

Reason 2:

It was a hazardous environment that often involved being on your feet for several hours and working around hot equipment and slippery flours. One of my colleagues got injured after a bad fall in the kitchen.

 

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that you were responsible for the less than excellent performance?

NOT AT ALL      (√)           (  )           (  )           (  )           (  )           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5           

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system was responsible?

NOT AT ALL      (  )           (  )           (  )           (  )           (√)           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5

Weight the reasons to indicate their importance in contributing to your lack of motivation.

LOW IMPORTANCE       (   )          (   )          (   )          (   )          (√)           VERY IMPORTANT

                                                  1              2              3              4              5

 

Reason 3:

I was only paid minimum wage for very intensive working hours.

 

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that you were responsible for the less than excellent performance?

NOT AT ALL      (√)           (  )           (  )           (  )           (  )           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5           

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system was responsible?

NOT AT ALL      (  )           (  )           (√)           (  )           (  )           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5

Weight the reasons to indicate their importance in contributing to your lack of motivation.

LOW IMPORTANCE       (   )          (   )          (   )          (√)           (   )          VERY IMPORTANT

                                                  1              2              3              4              5

 

Reason 4:

Working in the fast food business usually means that you’re dealing with customers who are hungry and impatient. Dealing with customers who were in a bad mood for a significant part of the working day was a normal occurrence.

 

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that you were responsible for the less than excellent performance?

NOT AT ALL      (√)           (  )           (  )           (  )           (  )           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5           

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system was responsible?

NOT AT ALL      (√)           (  )           (  )           (  )           (  )           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5

Weight the reasons to indicate their importance in contributing to your lack of motivation.

LOW IMPORTANCE       (   )          (   )          (√)           (   )          (   )          VERY IMPORTANT

                                                  1              2              3              4              5

 

Reason 5:

My supervisor would often change my working schedule such that instead of working a four-hour shift I would end up working for six or more.

 

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that you were responsible for the less than excellent performance?

NOT AT ALL      ( √ )         (  )           (  )           (  )           (  )           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5           

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system was responsible?

NOT AT ALL      (  )           (  )           (  )           ( √ )         (  )           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5

Weight the reasons to indicate their importance in contributing to your lack of motivation.

LOW IMPORTANCE       (   )          (   )          (   )          ( √ )         (   )          VERY IMPORTANT

                                                  1              2              3              4              5

 

Reason 6:

Working at the establishment was at your own well-being since there was no insurance against hazards in the workplace.

 

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that you were responsible for the less than excellent performance?

NOT AT ALL      (√)           (  )           (  )           (  )           (  )           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5           

To what degree does this particular reason indicate that the management system was responsible?

NOT AT ALL      (  )           (  )           (  )           (  )           (√)           VERY MUCH

                                  1              2              3              4              5

Weight the reasons to indicate their importance in contributing to your lack of motivation.

LOW IMPORTANCE       (   )          (   )          (   )          (√)           (   )          VERY IMPORTANT

                                                  1              2              3              4              5

Step 6: Further Questions

Now answer the following questions.

1.     Indicate your level of performance compared to others at your level in the organization.

        My performance was:

        Well above average                                                     (   )

        Somewhat above average                                       ( √ )

        About average                                                                  (   )

        Somewhat below average                                       (   )

        Well below average                                                     (   )

2.     Could your performance have improved:

        IN ALL AREAS OF HIS OR HER JOB                                 (   )

        IN MOST, BUT NOT ALL AREAS                                       ( √ )

        IN SEVERAL AREAS                                                 (   )

        IN JUST ONE OR TWO AREAS                                           (   )

3.     For how long was your performance less than excellent?

        MORE THAN 1 YEAR                                                            (   )

        FOR ABOUT 6 MONTHS TO 1 YEAR                  (   )

        FOR ABOUT 3 TO 6 MONTHS                                             (   )

        FOR THE LAST FEW MONTHS ONLY                            ( √ )

 

Exercise 1-4: Classifying the causes you listed in Exercises 1-1 and 1-3

Step 1: Classify the Reasons

In Exercise 1-1, you listed up to six reasons why a co-worker or subordinate’s performance was sub-standard and in Exercise 1-3 you analyzed your own performance.

Classify each reason as either Dispositional or Situational and total the number of each type. For reasons which are both dispositional and situational, enter the number twice.

Step 2: Total the Classified Reasons

Put your totals in the table below by listing the number of each reason in the correct box.

If for example, you had listed “laziness” as the first reason, put a checkmark under “dispositional.” If you listed “boring job” as the second cause, put a checkmark beside reason 2 under “situational.”

If one of your reasons seems to indicate both situational and dispositional causes, put a checkmark in both boxes.

Total the number of checkmarks in each column under “dispositional” and “situational.”

Exercise 1-4: Attributions Made About a Co-worker’s and One’s Own Performance

 

 

Dispositional

Situational

Exercise 1-1
Co-worker

Reason 1

___

Reason 2

___

Reason 3

___

Reason 4

___

Reason 5

___

Reason 6

___

 

TOTAL

5

1

Exercise 1-3Self

Reason 1

___

Reason 2

___

 √

Reason 3

___

Reason 4

___

 √

Reason 5

___

Reason 6

___

 √

TOTAL

0

6

Exercise 1-5: Classifying Solutions to Performance Problems

This exercise is designed to give you a feel for the types of solutions made by administrators about the sub-standard performance of their co-workers and subordinates.

In Exercise 1-l, you were asked to make two sets of recommendations for improving the situation. The first set assumed complete freedom of action. The second assumed the constraints that you experience in your workplace.

Now, we would like you to classify each set of recommendations as either controlling, redesigning, or a mixture of both. Look over your recommendations in Exercise 1-1 and underline those elements that suggest controlling the co-worker or subordinate. Then circle the portions that suggest redesigning the job, the reward system, or changing the leadership style or another aspect of the way work is done and organized.

In the spaces below, estimate the proportion of each type found in your original recommendations (e.g., if your recommendations were predominantly controlling, put 100% on the first line and 0% on the second; if you had roughly an equal amount of each, put 50% on both lines).

 

NO LIMITATIONS

PRACTICAL LIMITATIONS

% Controlling Solution Ideas

90%

90%

% Redesigning Solution Ideas

10%

10%

 

Exercise 1-6: Types of Situational Attributions

This exercise is also a follow-up to Exercises 1-2 and 1-3. However, this time the goal is different. We want to examine the types of situational attributions made in Exercises 1-2 and 1-3 as a means of explaining why you will study the topics found in the other five units of the course.

After doing the exercise, you will be shown the summary results from other administrators who have completed this exercise.

Step 1: Categorize Situational Attributions

Begin by looking at the reasons you listed in Exercise 1-2 explaining the factors for a period of above-standard performance on your part. Focus only on the situational attributions. Do not try to classify the dispositional attributions. For each different situational attribution that you have listed, find the category among those listed on the next page that best fits it. Write the number of the reason (from Exercise 1-2) on the line next to the category.

For example, if for your third reason you wrote that “the job was very interesting,” you would use the “Job Itself” category, and write “3” on the line for that category. If for the second reason you wrote that “I was given clear goals,” you would write a “2” next to the “Goals” category.

You will probably find that some of your reasons fit more than one of the listed categories. In that case, write their numbers in all of the categories that seem appropriate. If you find that your reason doesn’t really fit any of the listed categories, write its number in the “other” category. It is very important that you do not add new reasons to your original list of reasons. If you do so, you will undermine the learning that this exercise is designed to provide for you.

Step 2:

Next, look over the situational attributions that you listed in Exercise 1-3 for a period when you were performing below standard. As before, put the numbers of each reason into one or more of the categories listed on the next page, but under the column headed “Exercise 1-3.”

Again, take care to check only those categories that correspond to reasons that you listed when you originally did Exercise 1-3. Do not list new reasons even if new ones now make sense to you.

 

 

Exercise 1-2

Exercise 1-3

REASONS WHY PEOPLE PERFORM WELL

REASONS WHY PEOPLE PERFORM POORLY

SUPERVISOR

·   good communicator

·   focuses on the positive

1

SUPERVISOR

·   poor communicator

·   focuses on the negative

5

REWARDS

·   pay was good

·   excellent benefits

2

REWARDS

·   pay was inequitable

·   poor benefits

3

JOB ITSELF

·   work was interesting

·   work was challenging

4

JOB ITSELF

·   work was boring

·   overload assigned

1, 2

GOALS

·   clear objectives

·   achievable goals

1

GOALS

·   unclear objectives

·   unachievable goals

 

FEEDBACK

·         given good information on performance

·   information was timely

1

FEEDBACK

·   little or no information

·   information was inaccurate

5

DECISION MAKING

·   was involved in decisions

·   my ideas were used

1

DECISION MAKING

·   not involved in decisions

·   my ideas were not used

1, 5

CO-WORKERS

·   shared ideas

·   positive attitudes

3

CO WORKERS

·   competitive

·   low output norms

 

REASONS THAT DON’T FIT

OTHER CATEGORIES

 

REASONS THAT DON’T

FIT OTHER CATEGORIES

4, 6

 

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