Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Discuss the training implication of behavioral and cognitive learning in the training environment.
1.1 Examine how traditional and technology-based training methods contribute to learning.
Unit V Lesson
Unit V Assessment
Chapter 7: Traditional Training Methods, pp. 292-322
Chapter 8: Technology-Based Training Methods, pp. 335-367
In preparing for a training session, you must identify the method or methods to be used in delivering the
training. More than one method can be used at one time. When multiple methods are used, it is called a
blended approach to training, which is discussed in Chapter 8 of the textbook. There are various types of
methods to select from; however, we will focus on the traditional methods and the technology-based training
methods. Each of the methods bring about unique aspects in the learning process, such as how someone
interprets and learns the material from a behavioral and cognitive standpoint. Throughout the lesson, we will
focus on identifying the specific attributes of each and when each should be used for the best results for
employers and employees.
Traditional Training Methods
According to Noe (2014), traditional training methods are still the most popular training methods. These
methods consist of a host of options to use in delivering the material including lecture-style training, on-the-job
(OTJ) training, and cross-training. Regardless of the method, training should be based on the targeted
audience and the best way to deliver the desired material. The complexity of the information can also factor in
the method or methods used to deliver the material. For example, for material that is more complex, it is
recommended to deliver the material in a blended manner including through the use of presentations, handson methods, and group methods. Again, this will depend on your audience and the complexity and type of
material. According to Kraiger (2008), e-learning is not effective for all learners. Its effectiveness depends on
learners’ computer knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy.
Lecture is one of the top methods in delivering material. According to Kraiger (2008), learners are satisfied
with the use of this type of method. This type of method takes place between a facilitator or instructor with a
group of participants in a classroom setting. Of course, in delivering training by this method, there are other
components incorporated for a well-rounded learning experience such as an LCD projector, computers or
laptops, modules, manuals, or other materials. This type of training method allows for the opportunity for
factual data to be learned through thinking, remembering, reasoning, and understanding the information as
provided by the lecture style of training.
UNIT V STUDY GUIDE
Traditional Training Methods,
E-Learning, and Technology
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Cognitive knowledge can be assessed through the use of testing and other forms of assessment. Interactive
activities should also be included to provide the best learning experience. This is where other methods, such
as the hands-on method, are introduced.
OTJ training is a hands-on method in delivering training material. It involves the workers participating in the
actual function or functions identified for the position. This form of training is one of the oldest training
methods in preparing and developing workers for the workforce. OTJ training helps with the learning process
by allowing the employee to take content to application. Of course, OTJ training has evolved over the years to
the point that it now provides an informal style of learning with a more advanced process. In using OTJ
training, it is strictly hands-on without the use of formal documents, but it can be supplemented with
documents, if needed. The training can last for a day to any amount of time. This is one of the big advantages
to OTJ training compared to the other training methods; however, OTJ training may not be the best method to
use depending on the material.
Another viable training method is cross-training, which is a group-building method. Cross-training also is one
of the oldest training methods. It provides an opportunity for the employees to work in the capacity of a
secondary position while maintaining the assigned work duties and functions of the primary position;
therefore, all contact with other coworkers, managers, and vendors will be a part of the learning experience
and group-building efforts. This will allow the employee to gain firsthand knowledge by engaging in the day-today acts of performing the duties and functions of the cross-training position. Most organizations will allow this
as often as possible since it makes the employee more valuable to the organization; moreover, it provides the
opportunity for advancement within the organization. With this type of training, it brings about learning with
being able to take the processes of thinking, remembering, reasoning, and understanding to apply to the
success of the organization with an advanced knowledge base through group efforts.
Technology-Based Training Methods
According to Miller (2014), 39% of learning hours involve technology-based training methods. The
technology-based methods have changed the way training is conducted to methods that are computer-based,
web-based, online, mobile, synchronous, or asynchronous. It influences how material is learned through the
use of advanced training methods. Refer to Table 8.2 on page 336 of the textbook for examples. You will find
the technology-based training method to be the more sought-after method due to the advanced capabilities.
According to Kraiger (2008), online instruction is more effective than face-to-face classroom instruction for
teaching declarative knowledge. Technology aids in better collaboration, enhanced processes, and more
control by the end users.
With the use of technology, training has evolved, which aids in a more successful learning experience for the
participants. When it comes to better collaboration, technology can have participants communicate and
participate within training sessions and enable training to be conducted from remote-access locations. As
online institutions begin to target the use of all the technology-based methods, more and more online
programs and institutions are beginning to cater to the population. In addition, this is the same for
organizations due to advanced technology; organizations are able to conduct meetings and trainings from
various remote locations for the employer and employees. Some advanced collaborations are listed below:
x messaging systems,
x meeting systems,
x learning management systems,
x document handling systems,
x online communities,
x web links,
x social networks, and
x simulations and games (Noe, 2017).
Technology has enhanced the processes used in delivering material. It has changed so much that the use of
a teacher is no longer a major concern. Now, you will find the use of a facilitator or trainer in place of the
teacher due to how the material is delivered and how it will be interpreted by the participants. The use of
technology allows for the material to be learned at the participants’ own time and pace, eases the access to
needed material and information, and provides better-simulated interaction. According to Kraiger (2008), the
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employees who get the most out of online learning are those who take advantage of the practice opportunities
and take the needed time available to complete the training.
Technology contributes to better control and easier access in receiving and viewing the needed material.
Trainer responsibilities are now mainly administrative functions because most of the learning is taking place
with the use of collaborations through technology. You can attribute this to a well-developed learning
management system (LMS) and effective application of technical collaborations. According to Miller (2014),
74% of companies use an LMS. Of course, the level of ease in access greatly depends on the usage level
and capabilities of the end users. Organizations like this method of training because the employees are able
to navigate at their own pace and explore the material in their comfort zones, which are centered around
timing, knowledge level, and learning curve.
Some examples of LMSs are SkillPort, Skillsoft, ADP, eCollege, Blackboard, Canvas, CampusVue, and
Ultipro. These systems can be used for training and administrative purposes. According to Noe (2014), LMSs
aid in the delivery and administration of training programs. Where do we see technology and training going
from here? We can say only that technology is going in positive directions with more advanced and dramatic
changes coming in the future.
Overall, training methods and technology work hand-in-hand in providing the best training and learning
experience for all parties involved. As the trainer, you must assess your audience in determining the best
training method—either traditional, technology-based, or a mix of both. It is recommended that a blended
method be applied for the best end results. The blended method provides a well-rounded approach to
learning and training. According to Noe (2017), the blended approach is the best way to capitalize on the
strengths of available training methods.
As we move forward, we will discover even more information on training and development and the workplace.
In Unit VI, we will explore how training and development contributes to the success of employee development
and career management. In addition, we will discuss how employee development and career management
contributes to the overall success of the organization.
Kraiger, K. (2008). Transforming our model of learning and development: Web-based instruction as enabler of
third-generation instruction. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(4), 454–467.
Miller, L. (2014, November). 2014 State of the industry report: Spending on employee training remains a
priority. TD Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.td.org/magazines/td-magazine/2014-state-of-theindustry-report-spending-on-employee-training-remains-a-priority
Noe, R. A. (2017). Employee training and development (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
In order to access the following resources, click the links below.
The following are great websites to visit to learn about additional tools for career planning and management.
The O*NET OnLine website provides information on career exploration and job analyses. The Bureau of
Labor Statistics website provides data and other information for all career fields and categories from the
federal government. The information can range from salary data, position duties and responsibilities, and
forecasts for the various positions.
O*NET OnLine: onetonline.org
Bureau of Labor Statistics: bls.gov
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The article below offers several training tips for new employees.
National Federation of Independent Business. (2015). 7 tips for training new employees. Retrieved from
The article below further discusses technology-based learning solutions.
Taylor, D. (2017, May 15). Contact center training needs technology and people. Chief Learning Officer.
Retrieved from http://www.clomedia.com/2017/05/15/contact-center-training-needs-technologypeople/
Learning Activities (Nongraded)
Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.
The learning activities below create the opportunity to apply your knowledge. Each of the activities introduces
topic material from Unit V including training methods and the use of technology. You may complete one or all
of the assignments below, which can be found in your textbook.
1. Application Assignment, page 325, #5
2. Application Assignment, page 326, #8
3. Application Assignment, page 376, #7
4. Application Assignment, page 376, #8