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Describe the central focus and the essential literacy strategy for comprehending OR composing text you will teach in the learning segment

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Describe the central focus and the essential literacy strategy for comprehending OR composing text you will teach in the learning segment

TASK 1: PLANNING COMMENTARY

Respond to the prompts below (no more than 9 single-spaced pages, including prompts) by typing your responses within the brackets. Do not delete or alter the prompts. Pages exceeding the maximum will not be scored.

1.   Central Focus

  1. Describe the central focus and the essential literacy strategy for comprehending OR composing text you will teach in the learning segment.

[Lesson 1

In lesson 1, the students will be able to identify letters of the alphabet. This will fulfill the CCSS.ELA-LITERACY CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.1.D and CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.2 standards, which require students to recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet, and demonstrate an understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds. The students will apply the skills and knowledge from this class in future lessons, writing examinations at this level, and higher ones during their communication and reading sessions. The lessons are calculated to enable the students to understand the English language for personal growth and development. The skills are also relevant in employment as communication is a fundamental requirement for obtaining a job opportunity. The lesson will be significant in developing the second one.The first lesson will rely on Chicka Chicka Boom Boom by Bill Martin Jr. and John Archambault letter cut out literary materials. The lesson will be accomplished through implicit instruction, guided practice, assessment, review, and closing.

Lesson 2

In the second lesson, the students will be able to identify the letters in their name and how many letters are in their name. The lesson will be in fulfillment of CCSS.ELA-LITERACY CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.1.B, CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.1.D and CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.2 standards, which require students to recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters, recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet, and demonstrate an understanding of words, syllables, and sounds. The lessons will equip the students with skills to communicate in their daily activities such as learning, playing, examination, and understanding other classes in various subjects and employment. Lesson 2 will be based on letter stickers, construction paper, a template of the coconut tree, leaf cut out, glue, pencil, small baggies materials. The lesson will be accomplished through implicit instruction, guided practice, assessment, review, and closing

Lesson 3 In lesson 3, students will be able to identify upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. The lesson will be in fulfillment of CCSS.ELA-LITERACY standards CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.1.D and CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RF.K.2, which requires students to be able to recognize, name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. They should also demonstrate an understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds.Lesson 3 will be the development of lesson 1 and 2. The lesson is essential in developing learner’s abilities to understand other subsequent lessons and subjects, to be able to communicate in daily life interactions and personal development, and future employment.

The lesson will be based on large bin’s and laminated sea life shapes (26 per class) Milk jug caps “bubbles” (26 per class) containers, tape or glues, printed uppercase and lowercase alphabet material. The lesson will be delivered through implicit instruction, guided practice, independent work time, differentiation, and review and closing.  ]

  1. Given the central focus, describe how the standards and learning objectives within your learning segment address
  • the essential literacy strategy
  • related skills that support use of the strategy
  • reading/writing connections

[ϒ Essential Literacy Strategy

Literacy strategies are essential in helping learners master, understand, and relate to the lesson content. The standards and learning objectives address the following literacy strategies

  1. Making connections Learners are expected to connect the alphabet and demonstrate an understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds. The reading materials assist the learners in establishing a connection between the lessons on the alphabet and demonstrating an understanding of spoken words and written stories.
  2. Visualizing- practical or experimental activities with the learners helps them to have a perfect understanding of the alphabets, including spoken words and sounds. Guided practice, cut letters glued on paper,
  3. Inferring- the students will infer to lessons on letter sequences, upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet, understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds to make meaning out of the stories. Assessing this inference ability can be achieved using questions such as ‘what is this story about?’ and ‘what do you think about Chicka Chicka Boom Boom?’ title.
  4. Questioning- questioning from the learners opens avenues to explaining difficult concepts, elaborating more on specific details, and assessing the learner’s level of grasp. The teacher can also employ the strategy to assess the learning abilities of the students and determine if the standards are met. Questions from stories help students to apply the lessons on sequences of letters, upper and lowercase letters of the alphabet, understanding of words and sounds. Therefore, a question such as ‘what is this story about?’ is significant in determining the achievement of the standards and objectives.
  5. Synthesizing– learning through stories enables the learners to synthesize the connection between the lessons on sequences of letters, upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet, understanding of words and syllables and practical applications in written and verbal communication

Related Skills That Support Use of the Strategy

Other general skills include written skills, awareness of print, reading comprehension, and spelling. These skills are developed through synthesizing, questioning, inferring, visualizing, and making connections. They are secondary to the literacy strategy, and their early development is fundamental to the child’s learning process.

 ϒ Reading/Writing Connections

The standards and objectives require the development of the learner’s ability to understand and apply lessons on sequences of letters, upper and lowercase letters of the alphabet, understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds and practical applications in written and verbal communication. These elements are essential to reading and writing.

  1. Explain how your plans build on each other to help students make connections between the essential literacy strategy to comprehend OR compose text and related skills that support use of the strategy in meaningful contexts.

[  The objective of the first lesson is to enable learners to identify letters of the alphabet while the second one enables learners to identify the letters in their name. They will also count the number of letters that make up their names. The third lesson’s objective is to enable learners to identify upper and lowercase letters of the alphabet. The lessons are progressive because students will need information learned in the first lesson to solve problems in the second lesson. The third lesson differs from the first two because it requires the learners to progress to another level, which is distinguishing lower case and upper case letters. ]

2.   Knowledge of Students to Inform Teaching

For each of the prompts below (2a–b), describe what you know about your students with respect to the central focus of the learning segment.

Consider the variety of learners in your class who may require different strategies/support (e.g., students with IEPs or 504 plans, English language learners, struggling readers, underperforming students or those with gaps in academic knowledge, and/or gifted students).

  1. Prior academic learning and prerequisite skills related to the central focus—Cite evidence of what students know, what they can do, and what they are still learning to do.

[The class has two students qualifying for 504 plans. No student meets the 13-disability number required for IEP. The students are meeting the requirements for 504be registered according to the requirements for a service provider, types of services and the person in charge of the implementation of the 504 plan (Spiel, Evans & Langberg, 2014). The school will take responsibility for the implementation of the 504-plan for the two students with communication and reading. The other students are learning to communicate effectively. They are at a good level while communicating and interacting while fulfilling the purpose of class lessons. They are also capable of playing make-believe games, interact and respond to teacher’s prompts, and organize their work.]

  1. Personal, cultural, and community assets related to the central focus—What do you know about your students’ everyday experiences, cultural and language backgrounds and practices, and interests?

[Learners are from a mixed cultural background. Culture plays a significant role in knowledge transmission. If the class consisted of members from a single culture, incorporating their cultural learning techniques would have made the lesson plan simpler, and lessons interactive and enjoyable as they could be able to relate with them. The mixed culture requires the adoption of different strategies, such as the selection of cross-cultural materials. However, there is a pattern in the various cultures, such as the use of songs, stories, and plays in early childhood experience. Despite the cultural differences and the bias it causes in knowledge transmission, the lesson plan is based on cultural similarities. The learners will be able to enjoy the lessons and to learn what other cultures do from the stories Chicka Chicka Boom Boom, sea life shapes, and sea creatures, and other class examples  ]

3.   Supporting Students’ Literacy Learning

Respond to prompts 3a–c below. To support your justifications, refer to the instructional materials and lesson plans you have included as part of Literacy Planning Task 1. In addition, use principles from research and/or theory to support your justifications.

  1. Justify how your understanding of your students’ prior academic learning and personal, cultural, and community assets (from prompts 2a–b above) guided your choice or adaptation of learning tasks and materials. Be explicit about the connections between the learning tasks and students’ prior academic learning, their assets, and research/theory.

[The understanding of my students’ prior academic learning and personal, cultural, and community assets helped me to select the best delivery methods. Understanding student background is fundamental to selecting lesson materials and delivery approach (Khalil & Elkhider, 2016). I selected to use Chicka Chicka Boom Boom by Bill Martin, Jr. and John Archambault, letter cut out, bag, Chicka Chicka Boom Boom Tree cut out literary materials. The story has a national cultural significance which meets the mixed cultural background of my students ]

  1. Describe and justify why your instructional strategies and planned supports are appropriate for the whole class, individuals, and/or groups of students with specific learning needs.

Consider the variety of learners in your class who may require different strategies/support (e.g., students with IEPs or 504 plans, English language learners, struggling readers, underperforming students or those with gaps in academic knowledge, and/or gifted students).

[I chose to use Chicka Chicka Boom Boom by Bill Martin, Jr. and John Archambault, letter cut out, bag, Chicka Chicka Boom Boom Tree cut out literary materials, which consists of reading material and demonstration. Besides, I also arranged for activities to engage the students. The reading material is prescribed for students that do not have reading or communicating problems while the demonstrations through cut materials attend to the need of students that cannot communicate effectively. The play sessions cover the learning needs of all students ]

  1. Describe common developmental approximations or common misconceptions within your literacy central focus and how you will address them.

[I have selected Chicka Chicka Boom Boom by Bill Martin, Jr. and John Archambault as our key story. The students are most likely to confuse between the fictional story and the real-life situations. Besides, the learners will face the challenge of comprehending the story at different learning rates. It will be easy to visualize the use of syllables, letters, and uppercase and lowercase. I will integrate real-life scenarios involving characters familiar to the students and ask them to make their individual contribution. I will then compare and contrast the examples they provide to illustrate the learning objectives. ]

4.   Supporting Literacy Development Through Language

As you respond to prompts 4a–d, consider the range of students’ language assets and needs—what do students already know, what are they struggling with, and/or what is new to them?

  1. Language Function. Using information about your students’ language assets and needs, identify one language function essential for students to develop and practice the literacy strategy within your central focus. Listed below are some sample language functions. You may choose one of these or another more appropriate for your learning segment.

Analyze

Argue

Categorize

Compare/contrast

Describe

Explain

Interpret

Predict

Question

Retell

Summarize

 

[Analyze- Bloom’s taxonomy on cognitive learning establishes “analyze” as the fourth learning function (Adams, 2015). The analysis included the ability to sequences letters, recognizing and naming all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet, and demonstrating an understanding of words and sounds. I will use a story and demonstration and require learners to analyze the alphabetic used in sentences through pronunciation after. I will also require them to analyze the use of uppercase and lowercase in sentences. ]

  1. Identify a key learning task from your plans that provides students with opportunities to practice using the language function in ways that support the essential literacy strategy. Identify the lesson in which the learning task occurs. (Give lesson day/number.)

[Lesson 2 involves the use of Letter stickers, construction paper, and template of a coconut tree, leaf cut out, glue, pencil, and small baggies. Students will engage in practical activity in which they will write, cut, and glue letters after observing my work. The students will participate in various group activities in which they will exchange their work and assess what others have done. The compare and contrast section will enable them to comprehend multiple ways of completing the same task. ]

  1. Additional Language Demands. Given the language function and learning task identified above, describe the following associated language demands (written or oral) students need to understand and/or use:
  • Vocabulary or key phrases
  • Plus at least one of the following:
  • Syntax
  • Discourse

[Lesson 1 will expose the learners to lower case and upper case alphabet. Lesson 2 will present them with more examples of lower and upper case usage. Lesson 3 will require them to go another level in understanding and use of uppercase, lowercase, and matching pairs. The students will experience the identification and use of the alphabets, lowercase, and upper case through observation and listening. The demonstrations will be important to students with educational needs subscribed to the 504 plan. I will proceed gradually to account for the students with learning needs and those with higher learning abilities.

ϒ Syntax: Majority of the class have average learning abilities, which will make it easier to go through the lesson plan. The identification of letters in their order and their names will enable them to develop syntax abilities. ]

  1. Language Supports. Refer to your lesson plans and instructional materials as needed in your response to the prompt.
  • Identify and describe the planned instructional supports (during and/or prior to the learning task) to help students understand, develop, and use the identified language demands (function, vocabulary or key phrases, discourse, or syntax).

[Instructional supports will include the use of Letter stickers, construction paper, a template of a coconut tree, leaf cut out, glue, pencil, and small baggies to arrange a make-believe play and matching letters in their names. The activities will enable the students to interact with the letters and syntax elements]

5.   Monitoring Student Learning

In response to the prompts below, refer to the assessments you will submit as part of the materials for Literacy Planning Task 1.

  1. Describe how your planned formal and informal assessments will provide direct evidence that students can use the essential literacy strategy to comprehend OR compose text AND related skills throughout the learning segment.

[I have incorporated assessments at every stage of the lessons. The assessment includes post-assessment and pre-assessment. I have designed questions and assessment of activities to assess the learning progress of every student. The pre-assessment section will establish the student’s level of knowledge. I have already used the pre-assessment to understand that my class is categorized into students with learning needs, fast learners, and average learners. ]

  1. Explain how the design or adaptation of your planned assessments allows students with specific needs to demonstrate their learning.

Consider the variety of learners in your class who may require different strategies/support (e.g., students with IEPs or 504 plans, English language learners, struggling readers, underperforming students or those with gaps in academic knowledge, and/or gifted students).

[Lesson plan 3 includes practical activities, which include student interaction with objects of various shapes in identifying letters and sounds. The activities will enable students with learning needs to interact and obtain a strong impression of the letters and sounds. The incorporation of the students also helps in managing stigma among students with learning need (Shifrer, 2013).]

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