Formal Paper Instructions
Online World Civilizations since 1600, Spring 2019
Basic Assignment: The point is to show that you have learned to read and interpret primary documents effectively, using evidence found in those documents for building an argument. You should pack your paper with good illustrative quotes from relevant primary source material and, where appropriate, paraphrases of secondary source material from that chapter. No research outside of assigned class materials is either required or necessary (in fact, I discourage it). [See more on Sources, below]. NOTE: Just because a document is found in a given chapter does not necessarily mean it is useful for a essay topic. You will have to use your judgement to decide whether certain material is relevant to the essay topic or not.
- Reilly, Worlds of History, Chapter 26, “The Cold War and the Third World:” The Cold War was at least partly “fought” in the realm of ideas, expressed in the careful choice of words (and, implicitly, the rejection of other alternative words). How did some people who commented on current events during the Cold War use words in an effort shape their audience’s attitudes and/or responses to those events? Include examples and quotes from at least three distinct primary sources within the chapter.
****** May be able to use this as another source possibly –
- Include a title page with the following information:
- Your Name
- Class Information [World Civilization to 1600, Spring 2019, SUNY Schenectady County Community College]
- Professor’s Name: Dr. Dean Bennett
- A copy of the original question/prompt you are responding to from above (just the bold part)
- Insert page numbers, starting after the title page.
- Your paper should be 1000-1350 words (that’s about 3-4 pages), and double-spaced (12-point font, double-spaced). Start your introductory paragraph at the very TOP of page one, because you should have a separate title page for your name, title, etc.
- Include an introductory paragraph in which you do the following:
- Establish the necessary basic information for the paper that follows. This includes the historical context (times and places under consideration).
- Introduce the problem. This is where you lay out the basic issues that the rest of the paper is going to resolve or explain. If your reader has no idea what the issues under consideration are, it is hard to judge whether the paper is accomplishing anything.
- At the end of your introduction, provide a clear thesis statement (this is your answer to the questions or problem—your argument).
- Caution: a thesis statement is NOT simply an announcement of the topic or restatement of the question to be addressed.
- A thesis statement outlines your answer to the question or problem that has been raised. It contains new information not provided in the question, and typically gives some hint of the subsequent organization of your essay.
- You should begin each paragraph in the body of the paper with a topic sentence that indicates the relationship of that paragraph to the thesis of your paper. Lazy (efficient?) readers rely on topic sentences to signal the importance and relevance of any part of your paper.
- Transitions: Try to arrange smooth transitions from the end of your previous paragraph into the topic sentence of the next one. It is often helpful to include a linking word or concept in the last sentence of the paragraph that reappears in the next topic sentence.
- Throughout the body of your paper, illustrate and support your general statements with specific, concrete examples. This includes accurate places, names, dates, events, etc.
- Reilly, Worlds of History, possibly the online course textbook, and relevant lecture information should be enough. You do not need to do additional outside research for this essay (in fact, I discourage it).
- IF you nevertheless do choose to do outside research for this essay (even though I discourage it), then
- You risk not giving enough weight to the material in Worlds of History, and I will have to figure out how to penalize you. If, on the other hand, your outside research is clearly supplemental, and not the dominant part of your paper, that’s perfectly fine.
- Any internet sources besides the free online textbook—if you use them—should be electronic copies of published scholarly books and/or articles (you can find good articles in JSTOR, for example).
- REFERENCING When you use any published material in any part of your paper—including course material and internet resources—whether you directly quote from a source or simply paraphrase it, you must.
- Use footnotes at the end of the passage where you used the material
- To make them in Word, click on “References” (look up!) and then “Insert Footnote.” Follow this format at the end of your sentence:
…end of “quote within sentence.”
- To reference material from a document in Reilly, follow the pattern you see in the footnote below (Author, “document,” in Reilly, Worlds of History, page number). 
- To reference the free online textbook, simply give name of the link from the main index page, and the subheading, like you see in the footnote below.
- After the 1st detailed footnote, you may save space in future references to the same source by abbreviating, plus page number.
- If you can’t figure out how to use footnotes, at least use parenthetical referencing like you have done on the short assignments. (Reilly, page number) and (textbook index link name, subheading).
- NOTE: Even though you are including footnote references, when you refer to a source, you should also generally identify it in the body of your text, for the sake of your readers. For example, you might write something like this: In a speech to the SS, delivered in 1943, Heinrich Himmler said, “Kill them all!”
- If (and only if) you do outside research (see above, under “sources,” you must provide a bibliography or works cited page at the end of your essay indicating your additional source(s). Chicago is the normal style for History, but MLA or other referencing styles are acceptable. I don’t care what referencing style you use, as long as you are clear and consistent.
- Failure to reference your work could result in a ZERO on the assignment!
- You are required to use include abundant relevant QUOTES from the primary source documents in Reilly, Worlds of History. Such quotes are a very effective way to provide supporting evidence for your general statements.
- Be careful to incorporate your quotes smoothly into your own sentences. For example, suppose you are trying to establish that a man was hungry, so you want to quote a sentence of his that reads, “I want to eat cake.”
- Wrong: The man seemed hungry. “I want to eat cake.”
- Also wrong: The man seemed hungry because “I want to eat cake.”
- Right: The man seemed hungry because he said he wanted “to eat cake.”
- Also right: The man seemed hungry because he said, “I want to eat cake.”
- Also right: The man seemed hungry because of what he said: “I want to eat cake.” [A colon is inserted when the preceding material is a complete and finished sentence. Use this sparingly, if at all]
- When including quotes, a footnote is usually not enough. You should make sure your reader has a good idea of where the quotes come from (in other words, its context). There is a right way and a wrong way to do this:
- Wrong: When I was reading the book, Perry, Sources of the Western Tradition, Chapter 10, section 1, the document “A Catholic Critic of the Church” expressed very harsh attitudes about the clergy. “They are so blessed by their selflove as to be fully persuaded that they themselves dwell in the third heaven.” (Perry, 327).
- Right: In a satirical work entitled Praise of Folly (1509), Erasmus of Rotterdam—a famous Dutch humanist critic of the Church—disapprovingly observed that the clergy “are so blessed by their selflove as to be fully persuaded that they themselves dwell in the third heaven.”
- When you use any other part of the source reader or course textbook (besides the text of the primary documents themselves), it’s usually best to PARAPHRASE. Keep direct quotes from it and other secondary sources to a minimum. Note that the introductory material before each document in the reader is NOT primary source material.
- Avoid needless repetition. Don’t be redundant. (But remember, there is nothing wrong with frequently reminding your reader how your discussion answers the question and relates to the thesis statement).
- In a good essay, you should acknowledge and deal with evidence that may complicate or challenge your own conclusions.
- End with a strong conclusion that convinces your reader that you have carefully considered many sides of the question and that your thesis statement is still thoroughly justified.
- Writing style and tone matters. Choose words carefully, and maintain a detached, scholarly attitude.
- Use correct English grammar and punctuation. Here are some especially common trouble areas:
- Wrong: Because I wanted to eat my mother made me some stew.
- Right: Because I wanted to eat, my mother made me some stew.
- Sentence Fragments/Incomplete Sentences [lacking a main subject or main verb, or both]
- Wrong: On the other side of river, where boats had been docking to release the prisoners.
- Right: On the other side of the river, where boats had been docking to release the prisoners, the villagers heard a loud explosion.
- Wrong: I instinctively capitalize random Important Words.
- Right: I do not capitalize random important words.
Tense: The usual practice in history-writing is to use the past-tense (unlike in writing about literature, which often uses the present
 Author (if known), “Title of Document,” in Book’s Author, Book Title, page number.
 Henty, “With Clive in India,” in Reilly, Worlds of History, page 801.
 Boundless World History, “British India, Changing Political Role”
 Henty, “Clive,” 802.
 Himmler, “Speech to the SS, 1943” in Reilly, Worlds of History, page 907.
 Erasmus of Rotterdam, “A Catholic Critic of the Church,” in Perry, Sources of the Western Tradition, 423.