Assignment on How to evaluate scientific reliability and validity

Assignment #7: How to evaluate scientific reliability and validity
Must be turned in before: July 3, 2020 before 11:59 PM.
a. To learn what reliability and validity mean in research:
1. Read an excerpt from Sommer’s (no date) article, “Introduction:
Reliability and Validity.”
2. Read a student from Bangor University’s (2011) blog post, “Reliability vs.
b. To learn what external versus internal validity means in research, read Bradley’s
(no date), PPT, “Reliability, Validity, and Bias.”
1. Although you should be sure you understand both terms, reliability and
validity, and their difference, this assignment will focus on reliability.
(Another assignment will focus on validity.)
c. To dig even deeper into the issues of reliability, as well as replicability, and
reproducibility, read Munafó et al.’s (2017) article, “A Manifesto for
Reproducible Science.”
1. NOTE: Munafó et al.’s (2017) article is complex (it’s not Huffington Poststyle writing).
▪ You might need to read it a few times to understand it. Please be
2. Munafó et al. (2017) suggest 10 procedures for making science, including
psychological science, more reproducible (replicable and reliable).
▪ Their 10 suggested procedures are listed in Table 1 on the third
page, and each is explained in the article.
3. Choose three of Munafó et al.’s (2017) 10 suggested procedures.
▪ Choose the three suggested procedures that you like the most (or
that you understand the best).
4. Write one five-paragraph Examples-Style essay to support the thesis
Scientists Can Improve Research Reliability.”
▪ For this essay, the three procedures you have chosen from Munafó
et al.’s (2017) article will be your three ‘examples’ in your
Examples-Style essay.
d. If you need to review how to write a Five-Paragraph Essay, including how to write
an Examples-Style essay, watch again the lecture video, “The Five-Paragraph
Model” (a transcript of the video is available here).
Part 1: Reliability and Validity (primer)
1. Check your essay to make sure your Introduction Paragraph has a hook
and a Thesis Statement.
2. Check your Thesis Statement to make sure that it summarizes your three
3. Check your essay to make sure it has three Supporting Paragraphs.
4. Check each of your three Supporting Paragraphs to make sure each one
has a Topic Sentence, three Supporting Sentences, and a Conclusion
5. Check your essay to make sure it has a Conclusion Paragraph.
6. Check your Conclusion Paragraph to make sure it has a sentence that
restates your Thesis Statement (summarizing your three
e. Because you’ll be drawing a lot of ideas from Munafó et al.’s (2017) article, make
sure you don’t plagiarize.
1. Be sure to include in-text citations to Munafó et al.’s (2017) article when
needed, but try to not make Munafó and his co-authors the subjects of
your sentences.
2. Make your ideas (e.g., the three procedures you’ve chosen) the subjects
of your sentences.
3. Remember, from Assignment #5a, how to synthesize psychologically
science, not Mad Lib it.
4. Include a full citation to Munafó et al.’s (2017) article, in APA style, at the
end of your essay.
5. Save your essay as a PDF and name the
file YourLastname_ReliabilityEssay.pdf.
f. Go to “Course Materials” → “Assignment #7: How to evaluate scientific reliability
and validity” and attach your essay, saved as a PDF.
a. Reliable and valid studies have reliable and valid operational definitions. To learn
what operational definitions are, read Bluestone’s (no date) PPT slide,
“Operational Definitions”
b. To understand why consistent, precise, logical, and justifiable operational
definitions are crucial for reliability and validity, read Dewey’s (2007) chapter,
“Operational Definitions.”
c. To appreciate the difficulty of generating reliable, precise, and valid operational
definitions, read this excerpt from Lammers and Badia’s (2013)
textbook, Fundamentals of Behavioral Research