Annotated Bibliography Assignment on Global Diversity in the Modern World

ANT 160

Global Diversity in the Modern World

Annotated Bibliography Assignment

Assignment:

Each student will develop an annotated bibliography on a specific global issue/topic/problem. This assignment will consist of picking four scientific journal articles in print or online journals that deal with a current global problem. All four references should deal with the same problem.

Format:

Chicago Manual of Style:

https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

The outline of the article should include: the research question or hypothesis being addressed (1 point), the methods used to study the question (1 point), the results/discussion of the article (1 point), and a brief critical analysis of the research (1 point). Each reference and outline then is worth a total of 5 points.

 

  1. Hypothesis (What is the “research question” being asked?)
  2. Methods (How was the data collected?)
  • Results/Findings/Argument (What are the results or broader discussion?)
  1. Critical Analysis (What do you think about the article? Do you agree, why? Do you disagree, why?)

How to Find Articles:

You can find scientific journal articles in Anthropology by going to the UK library website and clicking on Databases, then search for Anthropology Plus. Or, by searching for a topic or theme in the UK Library Database and narrowing your search results to only include “anthropology”.

Submission:

An upload of your assignment to the appropriate link in CANVAS should be done on the due date listed below by the time your recitation class ends. If the uploaded version of your assignment is turned in late without a permitted university excuse, five percent of this score (1 point) will be deducted for every day that it is late, starting the day after it was due for your recitation session.

Student Example

Music as a Culture

Throughout history, music has always had an impact towards society for as long as people made music and listened to it. Through time music has become an expressive language of culture. It tells a story, expresses ideas, and offers opinions and share emotions of life’s experiences. Before the written word, families, tribes, and communities used music to tell stories of a hunt, battle, history, rituals, and to teach lessons. Music often tied generations together. The songs composed are often reflected by culture in any time in history.

 

Lajosi, Krisztina. “National Stereotypes and Music.” Nations and Nationalism 20, no.4 (2014): 628-645. Anthropology Plus. EBSCOhost (accessed March 17,2016).

The journal states western art music consists of tonal systems that are universally intelligible, but certain rhythms and musical idioms have been associated with national styles. The journal then asks, “What was the relationship between music as a cultural practice and nineteenth-century national thought as discursive space?”

Methods included the author examining information from numerous publications and literary texts. The author started from seventeenth-century thinkers to nineteenth-century authors to collect information on how music may have changed culture throughout time.

The journal sums up that national style is influenced by the political circumstances rather than a natural organic development. Music is often described as the invention of tradition where some of its features recycled remediated resilient cultural memories and stereotypes. The national element in nineteenth-century art music was not a matter of musical syntax and morphology distilled from folk music, but a romantic image of remediated stereotypes identified as national. As culture tend to become more advanced and politics become more influential, music evolves from simple storytelling to a more romantic image of history at the time.

Through the use of different literacy works through time, one can see the gradual change on the views of music in their collective periods of time. I would agree that music does change to become more complex to fit the ever changing culture. For example you wouldn’t see the same folk music you would hear in 19th century Europe to the medieval ages in Europe. As time changes, so the does music along with it.

 

Sturman, Janet. “Assessing Disciplinary Integration in New Anthropological Studies of Music.” Reviews in Anthropology 37, mo. 4 (2008): 302-341. Anthropology Plus, EBSCOhost (accessed March 17, 2016).

The author categorized four different topics pertaining to the origins of music. She believes that vocal communication in humans and other animals; purpose, fitness, and evolution; theories; and musical universals help carve the way to origins of music within her journal believes music is an inspirational moving force to an individual in a community.

The author’s method involves reviewing four books mentioned in her journal where it is indicative of the current research concerning human musical capacity and behavior. The readings shows studies and analyses ethnographic data that captures the diversity and complexity of musical practice and takes in the account the influence that circumstance and community norms exert upon individual experience in music.

The results show that every one of the authors in the texts reviewed confirms, in different ways, that music has the power to fire the human imagination. It also tells how cognitive science may not be able to be to give a complete explanation of why music can fire the humans’ imagination. The author further tells how song-like confirmations of social bonds and safety conveyed from mother to infant and displays of virility in pre-hunting dance chants illustrates how music provides an active framework and a sensory means for humans to transcend their lived experiences.

Music is a part of daily life whether we realize it or not. And I would agree that music does have the ability to inspire one’s imagination. Not just imaginations but also to teach lessons as well. Through the use of reviews, the article lists sufficient data to correlate with the hypothesis that music inspires one’s individual’s experiences. In nomadic tribes, communities may use music to tell stories of a hunt or experience and in turn, influences an individual in the community.

Vuolo, Mike, ChristopherUggen, and Sarah Lageson. “Taste Clusters of Music and Drugs: Evidence from Three Analytic Levels.” British Journal of Sociology 65, no. 3 (2014): 529-554. Anthropology Plus, EBSCOhost (accessed March 18, 2016).

Early on the journal, the author quickly states the use of drugs or substance usage in teens and young adults. The author hypothesizes that the taste clusters of musical preferences is symbiotic to substance use among adolescents and young adults.

Methods within the article considers three analytic levels: fixed effects analyses of aggregate listening patterns and substance use in US radio markets, logistic regressions of individual genre preferences and drug use from a nationally representative survey of US youth, and arrest and seizure data from a large American concert venue. Using these analyses, the author was able to correlate music genre to substance use.

The results of these three analytic shows that a consistent picture emerges from three different levels: rock music tends to have a positive association with substance use with some substance specific variability across rock sub genres. Hip hop music tends to have the highest association with substance usage while in contrast, pop and religious genres tend to have lower substance usage. The results further clarify how symbolic music is around influence in an individual.

Further examinations of surveys show a distinguishable correlation of music genre and drug use. Further listening to the lyrics within the genres, one can also see the correlation. I would agree that music choice is correlated with substance use. For example, take the lyrics in urban or hip hop genres it glorifies the use of alcohol and drugs in its songs, hence the surveys show a spike in drug use in these types of genres. Again look at the contrast in country, pop, or religious music, lyrics hardly endorse any types of substance hence the low numbers within the surveys. Music has always been an influence on an individual and now that culture in many western societies revolve around entertainment and media, one can see the similarity of a person’s choice of music.

 

Kaufman Shelemay, Kay. “Music, Memory and History.” Ethnomusicology Forum 15, no. 1 (2006): 17-37. Anthropology Plus, EBSCOhost (accessed March 19, 2016)

 

The article explores the relationship of memory and history through the use of music in communities. Smaller communities tend to pass down knowledge and histories through music. Methods includes reviewing a book called “Let Jasmine Rain Down (1998)” where it researches the correlations of music in memory about transmission and performance among Syrian Jews whose lives are based around a Hebrew-texted Para liturgical hymns called pizmonim. Throughout the research process, members of the Syrian Jewish community spoke so often and so eloquently about the ways in which music-making shaped and interacted with memory in interviews.

The results show like oral history, musical ethnography provides another open window on the recitation of historical narratives.  The materials here provide an additional information on a symbiotic relationship between memory and history. Thus showing that music is an important yet largely unacknowledged player in the construction of histories. The journal again states that histories are in fact always constructed in dialogue with memory and retain the power to cue memories submerged within themselves.

Through interviews and the results, many people are able to remember histories through music and song. Looking in present day, we can look at how many people are able to memorize songs and their lyrics, it is no different from songs and music that portray history. Many early cultures were able to pass down knowledge not through written texts but also through oral history in traditional music and dance. I agree that oral history should just be as acknowledged as written history.