The Mughal era is regarded as one of the greatest traditional Indian dynasties after the fall of the Gupta dynasty.The Mughal era is further characterized by the integration of Muslim, Hindu and some bits of Persian cultural concepts and social values. During the Mughal era, vast majority of the rulers who led the Indians were Muslims. However, the Islamic beliefs were never forcefully imposed on the Indians. Instead, the Islamic way of life became incorporated and assimilated as part of Hindu’s unique way of life and culture. This is because the Islamic tradition and beliefs largely influenced the Indians’ social aspects and cultural practices which include the Indian customs, dressing style, festivities, etiquettes of daily life and sports. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Muslims rulers introduced a myriad of changes to the Indian community. Some of these changes include;
Prior to the advent of the Mughal era, India had been subdivided into different states where each was governed by different political leaders. During this period, India was characterized by a wave of political disintegration and conflict. However, the different disintegrated Indian kingdoms were combined to represent a nation governed by a centralized and imperialistic government. This unification was indicated by the introduction of common currency together with the creation of a road system that connected the different states. The presence of a centralized government put more emphasis on peace and unity, which eventually contributed to the country’s political success and development. Since the centralized government brought about a unified nation, the Indians witnessed a significant economic growth and development. The Mughals’ way of improving the economy was by introducing and implementing policies that supported trade between the Indians and other traders from diverse parts of the world. Most of the manufactured products and harvested cash crops were exported to different regions and parts of the world. Among the most exported manufactured products, include textiles, steel, and ships. Moreover, during the Mughal’s tenure, the youths who resided in different province were taught the Quran and Islamic laws in the constructed Maktabs.
Language and literature
One of the positive impacts of Islam-Hindu synthesis of culture and beliefs is the invention of a new language. Urdu, a language that signifies the integration and incorporation of the Persian, Arabic and Turkish word became the most pronounced language during the Mughal dynasty. Aside from Urdu language, plenty of Arabic and Persian words were incorporated as part of the existing local language used by the Indians. In fact, Urdu is known to have been developed as a result of the fusion of the Indian and Islamic cultures during the Mughal period. Prior to the introduction of Urdu, the official language that was legally accepted in the courtroom was the Persian language.
In addition, several important literary works in India were composed and established during the Mughal era. According to a famous historian, over 24,000 volumes of literary works were inscribed by the calligraphers. The literature works represented a fresh wave of grammar, styles, vocabulary and similes. One of the most dominant forms of literature works during the Mughal dynasty was the poems which were commonly written in the Persian languageand style. In addition to this, Hindu’s devotional literature was re-established and dedicated to Rama and Krishna.
Persian Art and Culture
It was during the Mughal era that art and culture became regarded as important part and parcel of Indian life. This era was also marked with remarkable artistic achievements that were mainly done in form of paintings. Most of the artistic paintings displayed an integration of the Islam and Hindu culture and traditions. During Akbar’s tenure, Mughal School of painting was established for the sole purposes of promoting artistic works. Majority of the tutors in this school were the Persians who later on came up with ‘Akbar style’ of painting that had been regarded as a combination of the Persian and Indian motifs.
The Mughal era has evidently resulted in a significant economic growth and development among the Indians. In fact, the Mughal era saw the emergence of an affluent landed gentry and a prosperous merchant class.Unlike during the heydays where wealth was usually transferred or inherited with regards to hierarchy and traditional kinship ties, the Mughal dynasty led to the emergence of new group of people who achieved wealth and status on the basis of economic achievement. Most people who initially belonged to the group of low and middle income earners practiced trade and farming. Therefore, the Mughal dynasty had led to an improved living standard for a vast number of people who would be otherwise living in poverty were it not for the Islamic involvement.
It is without any doubts whatsoever that the Mughal dynasty came about with some of the most magnificent and breathtaking states of art buildings and constructions. Most of the displayed works of architectural design represent a combination of the Persian and Indian styles. A large number of beautiful buildings were built in the 17th century by the then reigning Emperor Shah Jahan. These state-of-art buildings were best symbolized by the Taj Mahal which brought style to perfection. One of the most recognized buildings that have been renovated by a Persian architect hired by Shan Jahan is commonly referred to as Humayun. The constructed building which is characterized by the integration of Persian and Islamic designs and motif was renovated during the Mughal era where the dome was raised whereas the red sandstone was replaced by the brilliant white marble. In addition, the entire exterior and interior surface was decorated with cut-stone geometrical patterns, delicate black stone tracery, or intricate inlay of colored precious stones in floral and Qur’anic arabesques.
Music and food
Today, most of the Indian music that we get to hear is as a result of the fusion made between the Hindu and Islamic genre and way of music. Some of the Indian instruments were invented after the existing ones got modified by the Muslims. For instance, The Tab la musical instrument was developed as a result of the modification of a specific Hindu musical instrument that was commonly referred to as Mridanga. To add to these significant developments, most of the original classical vocal music of India underwent significant transformations as a result of the changes that were introduced by the Muslim singers.
The Hindus also adopted some of the Islamic cuisines such as Biryiani and Pilau which are today regarded as common Hindu delicacies.
Science and Technology
The Mughal dynasty marked an important step in the field of science as a result of the integration between the Indian astronomy and the Islam astronomy. In this case, the Islamic observational techniques and instruments were incorporated with Hindu computational techniques. As a result of this collaboration; both the Hindu and Muslims astronomers came up with remarkable discoveries that later on led to the invention of astronomical instrument known as the seamless celestial globe.
Metcalf, Barbara D., and Thomas R. Metcalf. A concise history of modern India.Cambridge University Press, 2006.https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/a-concise-history-of-modern-india/F29ED2AB84A8F259BBBAB2F8AFF4F38B
Losty, J P and Malini Roy. Mughal India: Art, Culture and Empire: Manuscripts and Paintings in the British Library. London: The British Library Publishing Division, 2012.https://www.bl.uk/press-releases/2012/august/mughal-india-art-culture-and-empire-to-be-the-british-librarys-major-autumn-exhibition
Duiker, William J., and Jackson J. Spielvogel. 2008. Essential world history. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.https://books.google.co.ke/books/about/The_Essential_World_History.html?id=AxWLxjyOUooC&redir_esc=y
Ḥusain, Muẓaffar, Syed Saud Akhtar, and B. D. Usmani. 2011. A concise history of Islam. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=683360.
Pritchett, Frances. “Part1_09.” Accessed January 27, 2017.https://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/part1_09.html
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 William J Duiker, Jackson J Spielvogel, and Jackson J. Sp.., The Essential World History: [7th Edition], 6th ed. (Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2010), 51
 Muẓaffar Ḥusain, Syed Saud. Akhtar, and B. D. Usmani, A concise history of Islam (New Delhi: Vij Books India, 2011), 41
 J P Losty and Malini Roy, Mughal India: Art, Culture and Empire: Manuscripts and Paintings in the British Library (London: The British Library Publishing Division, 2012).,49
 William J Duiker, Jackson J Spielvogel, and Jackson J. Sp.., The Essential World History: [7th Edition], 6th ed. (Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2010)., 45
 Muẓaffar Ḥusain, Syed Saud. Akhtar, and B. D. Usmani, A concise history of Islam (New Delhi: Vij Books India, 2011), 61.
 William J Duiker, Jackson J Spielvogel, and Jackson J. Sp.., The Essential World History: [7th Edition], 6th ed. (Boston, MA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2010), 61.
 Muẓaffar Ḥusain, Syed Saud. Akhtar, and B. D. Usmani, A concise history of Islam (New Delhi: Vij Books India, 2011)., 103
 J P Losty and Malini Roy, Mughal India: Art, Culture and Empire: Manuscripts and Paintings in the British Library (London: The British Library Publishing Division, 2012), 81.