Transformation at various levels of governance in American institutions has been witnessed over the years and can be attributed to a number of aspects, most of which are due to the existence of various legal structures that stipulate the desired courses of action to be assumed in different situations. The American Constitution besides other legal dispensations has played a critical role in the transformation of these various institutions. This is due to the legal stipulations that are instrumental in the process of change adoptions. Among the documents that became critical in the course of structural transformation of these institutions was the article of confederation. The document explained various roles and legal responsibilities of individuals and institutions in various spheres. This made it possible for proper control in the course of adoption of these different changes in organizational structures. In addition, the article specifically presented the role of the central government in management of the new nation, the role of the military and other institutions that were central in the performance of national activities in the new formed America. In line with this, the paper will focus on various elements that offered guidance in the realization of these transformative adoptions in a number of institutions. Among the aspects integrated in the article of confederation that will be elucidated include the role that the article plays in the country’s economic sphere, diplomatic and general governance of the country. Reflection on the major weaknesses and merits that resulted from the use of the article in the country will be closely explained.
The formation of the Article of Confederation is traced back to 1977. The article formerly known as the AOC and perpetual union was a unifying factor in the country, America. Since the article was signed by the thirteen colonies that instituted the country, it was a sign of unity in the country and hence was used as a masterpiece for a number of adoptions in the country. In line with the high level of confidence colonies had in the article, it was used as the first constitution of the country. The wide adoption of the use of the article was after its effective ratification by the states.
After the country’s attainment of independence, the article that for a long time was used as the constitution of the country stipulated the formation process of the national government and the respective duties that the government was to assume. It is reported that the article did not provide a clear illustration of the functions of the national government yet gave many precedence to the colonies. This is viewed to have greatly compromised the diplomacy functions of the national government that was attributed to the poor diplomatic relationship that the country had with other countries. The plan to realize the formation of the national government by the Congress was controlled by the article of confederation. By defining powers that were vested upon Congress, the article enabled illustration of clear procedures that were to be followed in the process of various formations. Congress played a critical role in the formation and transformation of various institutions in the country. This was because of the legislative function of the house stipulated in the article of confederation (Vidyasagar 209)
The American Revolution was very instrumental in the history of the country. The article provided certain measures that were assumed during the war that highly influenced the results of the war. Initially, the federal government was prevented from direct participation in the war. Despite availability of the military controlled by the central government, their participation in the war was highly minimized. This was in a bid to curb any events that could result in the deterioration of the building stability of the country. In addition, following the prevention of the federal government to directly participate in the war through the military, the government was required to use militaries from the various thirteen colonies. The move was seen to be promoting the strong establishment of military groups in the various colonies. Although it was viewed as a major cause of the weak defensive measures by the country that characterized the war, the move greatly contributed to the development of various structures within the colonies. In the course of the war, the article also stipulated a number of diplomacy actions that could be adopted and by which structures. This greatly resulted in the realization of smooth and orderly operation especially in terms of coordination among nations. In the formation of the government, the article proposed the adoption of a government with individual and social liberty. The aspect of freedom presented through the clause of liberty was viewed in the light of the article to be vital in the effective development of the country. In addition, the article presented the argument that through these considerations, promotion of individual rights of persons would be made manifest. This was critical in the realization of a purely democratic nation.
Weakness of the article
The article presented a number of weaknesses that greatly affected the procedures in the development of the country. Initially, the article bestowed a lot of power upon Congress (Vidyasagar 345). This was seen as detrimental because it heightened the chances for regulations and institutions formed by Congress being biased and not in the sole interest of all the involved sectors. The high power invested upon the house did not portray the high levels of individuals’ participation that was highly valued at the foundations of the country’s independence. In terms of the national government, the article was viewed to promote a weak form of central government. Through various support to the independent states, there was an abandonment of the roles of the central government in the formation of the country. This became pronounced in the course of American Revolution war where precedence was given to the militaries from the independent states to take active role in the war.
Following the stipulation that the legal structures in the country are to be at various province levels, the performance of the federal government in various key legal issues in the country was highly compromised. This has been made more devastating by the provision that there is no judiciary office at the national level. The move gave more powers to the state governments, which was viewed as a negative measure towards the realization of a central control unit in the country. Another weakness of the article that became prominent was the establishment of the legislative house that lacked the mandate to tax. This provision placed a hefty role on the various financial institutions in the country hence posing a number of challenges in the country’s revenue collection systems. The article also manifested a major weakness in the lack of proper financial regulations that could control the financial industry. There was need for clear stipulation of instances that could allow institutions to allow for devaluation of currencies and the fluctuations in the involved securities. This resulted in constant values of the currencies involved, the dollar, which extensively affected the operations of a number of commercial activities in the country. This also witnessed a high rise in the value of the federal debts that were directly linked to lack proper financial control units. This has presented the country in states of financial burden over the years hence derailing the process of the country’s economic growth (Vidyasagar 356).
Within the period, that article was used as a major guide in the country’s affairs; numerous cases of diplomatic concerns were witnessed. Among the cases that nearly jeopardized the country’s diplomatic relations was the case that involved America and Spanish Florida. Due to stipulation of the nature of the diplomatic ties that the country could indulge in, numerous of these cases were observed.
Financial aspects of the country
Apart from elucidating issues of governance that were to be adopted in the formation of the country, the article played an integral role in the realization of various financial aspects of the country. Initially, the article provided for the creation of the finance department that was concerned with a number of financial aspects within the country. In addition, the sole aim of the department was to provide necessary guidelines to the financial decisions that were to be adopted by the government. This included elements of revenue collection and subsequent expenditure plans assumed. However, due to lack of stipulations that controlled revenue collection from the colonies, the financial structures witnessed an array of challenges. This also became more devastating by lack of powers to allow Congress to monitor the tax collection procedures. The department of finance through the leadership of Robert Morris adopted certain financial policies that highly allowed for control in the sector besides providing economic power to various sectors in the country. The periods of war witnessed the department offer financial aid to merchants from various sectors through loans and grants in order to influence the overall improvement in the Gross Domestic product of the country (Vidyasagar 234) However, up to the period of 1781, the country’s financial systems faced great challenge owing to the lack of operating bank in the country. This was characterized by situations of fluctuations in the money supply and demand hence resulting into instances of financial instability. In addition, due to the lack of a common bank for general transaction, the country was faced with instances of fluctuation in the prices of various securities traded in the country. Cases greatly compromised commercial operations in the country as this resulted in a general increase in the costs of pertinent commodities in the country influencing even the buying process. In 1789, the value of the country’s debt volume increased from $11 to $28. This was majorly due to the high levels of inflation that characterized the country’s economy in the years 1788 and 1789.
In light of the discussion, certain key issues are made manifest that can be integrated within the operating systems of countries or organizations in order to realize the desired levels of operation. Initially, it is made evident from the formation of the article of confederation that there is need for inclusive involvement of persons in the procedures resulting to the formation of pertinent regulations to be used in managerial activities. Through these involvement actions, it made manifest that the resulting regulations will in the sole interest of persons besides meeting the set standards. Through extensive involvements, cases of resistance in the adoption process will be curbed hence allowing for general effectiveness of the dispensation. Another aspect that becomes manifests from the article is the need for nations and states to take keen consideration of the various diplomatic regulations adopted (Mackaness, Anne and Sarjakoski 345) Diplomatic tendencies play a critical role in the overall development of a nation. By implementing proper diplomatic relationships, activities such as trade amongst other core commercial plans among nations will be made possible. Critical examination into the formation of these diplomatic regulations should therefore be taken into careful consideration. This should entail proper and extensive involvement of stakeholders concerned in order to allow adoption of diplomatic tendencies that are in the sole interest of the nation. Through these diplomatic tendencies, it is also explained that the resulting political situations within the countries will be highly influenced. Peaceful coexistence with nations will play a critical role in the promotion of internal conducive political environment that is central in the realization of desired levels of economic development. Proper measures should undertaken by countries in order to allow for these realizations.
Mackaness, William A, Anne Ruas, and L T. Sarjakoski. Generalisation of Geographic Information: Cartographic Modelling and Applications. Amsterdam: Published on behalf of the International Cartographic Association by Elsevier, 2007. Internet resource.
Vidyasagar, M. A Theory of Learning and Generalisation. London: Springer, 2002. Print.