Sample Research Paper on An American innovation in Radio

A lot of innovations have had significant impacts on society but the innovations leading to the establishment of the radio stand out as the best inventions that researchers discovered. This is due to the fact that radio plays a number of roles in society from entertainment, information, communication, and education. These innovations have made the radio an integral part of human society which individuals use as a point of reference for previous events as well as companions. The history surrounding the history of radio however has quite an entertaining twist from the fact that it underwent a number of phases with each phase being carried out by a different individual who improved from where the first innovators had reached.

Just like any other innovation that is existent in society today, the innovations made in radio have a number of contributors who though they originate from different backgrounds they both enhanced what is currently referred to as the main source of present-day information[1]. Among the contributors in developing the radio include; Edward Armstrong, Edwin Armstrong, Guglielmo Marconi, Lee deforest, Reginald Fessenden, and Nikola Tesla among others. The pioneer innovator of the radio is believed to be Heinrich Hertz in 1884 who discovered that electric waves could be transmitted wirelessly laying the foundation for the rest of the inventors to put together the rest of the ideas to the present day radios that individuals are able to carry them in their pockets[2].

The development of electric base products can be traced to as early as 600BC after the innovation by Thales who discovered the attraction of objects when rubbed together which is now referred to as static electricity. Other innovations include electromagnetism that was done in the mid-1700 preceded by the electric circuit and transmission of signals in the 1830s by Joseph Henry. Another notable innovation was in 1892 when Nathan Morse discovered the possibilities of transmission of messages via magnetic waves that are at a lower frequency and can be transmitted via different mediums i.e. water, air, and ground.

Several other Americans were able to innovate varied products but they did not receive credit for the initial invention in the radio, for example, the transmission of rays of light and spend that enhanced the frequency of radio waves were done by Alexander bell in 1890. The test he put up which he labeled photophone is branded as the initial practical test of a similar device that has ever been improvised. It is however evident that Marconi’s influence is hard felt in impacting the radio industry compared to the rest of the innovators and inventors.

It is evident that previous innovations in society such as the invention of the telegraph and electric lighting were the pivotal bits towards the innovation of the radio and these innovations were stirred by individuals who were after selling, making a living out of these innovations and not necessarily enhancing the use of technology.  These, therefore, signify that the radio industry was filled with entrepreneurs rather than researchers. It is however important to note that in the wake of the 20th century, the organizations took up the role of enhancing technology and became greatly involved in innovating ways that would lead to new ways of carrying out inventions specifically in the high tech fields.

deForest Lee’s key contribution to the invention and development of the radio started when he formed the Wireless Telegraph Company where when he predicted its collapse which he moved to a radiotelephone company and later indicted and acquitted for promoting and developing a worthless device as well as defrauding mails[3]. In the year 1910, his broadcast was found to be poorly set thus the signals were not clearly adjusted which he suspected to failure of the transmission of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company.  He decided to install a transmitter that enabled the broadcast to transmit daily broadcasts sending the signals as far as Honolulu from the Columbia Gramophone building in New York that broadcasted phonograph music. Since the electrical industry had attracted a good number of investors, deforest and his accomplices found it easy to manage the new system for while since a lot of people were interested in gaining the offers that were presented to them by the investors in the nations new kind of innovation of the electrical industry. This new entrant made it difficult for legit firms to survive in the market as they aimed at gaining access to the market thus employed some dubious characteristics that would enable them to effectively gain access to the ever-ready market.

As per the year 1913, there was a total of 322 amateur radio stations that were licensed to operate in the American airwaves, they were however obligated to increase their spectrum or be relegated. It is however critical to note that though there were threats to relegate some of the radio stations that did not meet the set threshold, 1917 recorded the greatest increase to 13,581 amateur radios. The older generation had a negative reception towards the radios as there was a number of unfulfilled information with regard to these radios which were further improvised in a different medium such as the use of speech over earphones. This development led to new innovations by Edwin Armstrong who thought it necessary to replace the use of earphones with loudspeakers increasing listenership and the interest from individuals[4].

DeForester’s contribution to radio technology greatly changed the culture of America as it increased the coverage of radio stations along the United States’ airwaves as well as attract investors and sponsors who saw the electrical industry as a field full of great potential. It also led to the development of different genres of radios as each individual was able to categories’ the kind of programs to run in the initial amateur radios that existed[5]. For him, he chose phonograph music but as time went by and other individuals established radio broadcasts there were varieties where an individual decided the choice of music genre to listen to. There was also the rise of partnerships where individuals thought it necessary to promote their programs collectively.

As a result of increasing the airwaves through placing extra transmitters, the government thought it necessary to license the amateur radios to ensure that only legit companies took part in the business. Companies that did not abide by the policies set had their licenses withdrawn meaning that the companies would close[6]. There was also the establishment of the radio corporation of America which was affiliated to the government-mandated with licensing and policy promotion as well as regulation of radio competition in the industry. This company was formed to replace the one made by Marconi since he was not a Native American.

Another notable impact of the defrosters innovation is the rise of radio broadcasts financing which was done by the investors in their quest to gain access to the market and increase awareness in the market. Another form of financing that was realized is the rise of radio advertising in the quest of gaining publicity. The majority of organizations which included civic groups, churches, and government institutions were greatly involved in these forms of advertising raising revenue for the management of the Radio Corporation of America. It is therefore important to observe that radio remains to occupy that integral part which preserves the history that keeps us entertained from the fact that it underwent a number of phases with each phase being carried out by different individuals who improved from where the first innovators had reached.

 

References

Godfrey, Donald G. 2012. “Lee de Forest: King of Radio, Television, and Film.” Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 56, no. 2: 316-318.

Scott S., Smith. 2016. “Edwin Armstrong’s Sound Sparked Modern Radio.” Investors Business Daily, January 21. A03. Business Source Complete,

Scott, Peter. 2014. “When Innovation Becomes Inefficient: Reexamining Britain’s Radio Industry.” Business History Review 88, no. 3: 497-521.

[1] Scott, Peter. 2014. “When Innovation Becomes Inefficient: Reexamining Britain’s Radio Industry.” Business History Review 88, no. 3: 497-521.

[2]               Scott S., Smith. 2016. “Edwin Armstrong’s Sound Sparked Modern Radio.” Investors Business Daily, January 21. A03. Business Source Complete,

[3]         Godfrey, Donald G. 2012. “Lee de Forest: King of Radio, Television, and Film.” Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 56, no. 2: 316-318.

[4]              Scott S., Smith. 2016. “Edwin Armstrong’s Sound Sparked Modern Radio.” Investors Business Daily, January 21. A03. Business Source Complete,

[5]            Godfrey, Donald G. 2012. “Lee de Forest: King of Radio, Television, and Film.” Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 56, no. 2: 316-318.

[6] Scott, Peter. 2014. “When Innovation Becomes Inefficient: Reexamining Britain’s Radio Industry.” Business History Review 88, no. 3: 497-521.