According to Dr. Li Zhisui’s memoirs, the relationship between the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) that was headed by Mao Zedong and the Soviet Union seemed cordial to the public perception. However, the Soviet Communist party and Stalin considered him a dissident from as back as the 1930s. This was despite Mao signing the “Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance, and Mutual Assistance” and his advocacy for a “leaning-to-one-side” foreign policy. The signing of this treaty and the introduction of the foreign policy made many people have the notion that the Soviet Union and Mao were very close (Li 14). This portrayed that their relationship was cold since the CCP, and the Soviet Union did not trust one another.
In particular, during the winter of 1949-50, which marked Mao’s first official visit to the Soviet Union, he received a cold reception and spent two months there without achieving anything. Hence, Stalin was forced to sign the friendship treaty after Mao threatened to return to his country. On the other hand, Mao considered the Soviet Union as a huge threat to China since he had the perception that it was determined to gobble up China. These differences in ideology and mistrust eventually became public in the early 1960s after the Sino-Soviet split (Li 15).
Another incident occurred in the 1930s when some American journalists visited a Communist base area in China and wrote about the Chinese Communist Party’s existence. After that, Mao looked favorably towards the American country and its people, which made him lose his initially, focus on the Soviet Union. Ironically, he began advocating for the “leaning-from-the-Soviet-Union” policy in the 1950s, which made many people in China study Russian since they regarded it as being the most valuable foreign language. Nonetheless, Mao did not share the same opinion, and he studied English instead. Subsequently, he never permitted a Soviet-educated person to work for him (Li 15). In essence, this portrays that the relationship between the Soviet Union and the CCP from the late 1930s through the early 1960s was cold because there were numerous ideological differences and deep mistrust.
Li, Zhisui. The Private Life of Chairman Mao: The Memoirs of Mao’s Personal Physician. London: Arrow, 1996. Print.