Sample Essay on the Great Leap Forward and the Economic Reform under Deng Xiaoping

The Great Leap Forward and the economic reform that took place under Deng Xiaoping largely transformed the social and economic landscape of rural China in several ways since he took power under a reform program agenda. Notably, Deng Xiaoping was a reformist that started the Chinese Economic Reform, which referred to the economic reforms’ program. These economic reforms introduced various market principles, which were implemented in two distinct stages with the first stage taking place between the late 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s (Niida 497). This first stage was integral since it permitted different entrepreneurs in rural China to start their businesses, foreign investment was opened up in the country, and de-collectivization of agriculture was conducted. Most of these changes assisted in empowering many people of rural China since they opened for them opportunities to concentrate on their agricultural and business activities.

On the other hand, the second reform stage that occurred between the late 1980s and the 90s involved the introduction of protectionist regulations and policies in reference to Niida (498). It also involved lifting of various price controls, as well as contracting out and privatization of many state-owned industries. Subsequently, the private sector also recorded unprecedented growth, which also assisted rural China to develop remarkably, because the region was opened up to numerous agricultural and business opportunities. The people in rural China were excited when Deng Xiaoping took power because he had an economic program, which would assist them according to Niida (498).

In essence, majority of rural China heavily depended on agriculture although prior to these reforms, the region’s agricultural performance was tremendously low with food shortages being a common phenomenon. Deng’s administration introduced the household responsibility system, which led to an increase in agricultural output and incomes whereas the food prices reduced drastically. In addition, these reforms led to an increase in the production of meat and vegetables, as well as cash crops were also adopted. The liberalization of trade in agriculture boosted the economic status of rural China in a significant manner as noted by Niida (498).


Work Citied

Niida, Noboru. “Land Reform and New Marriage Law in China.” The Developing Economies 2.1 (1964): 3-15.