The role of Islamic civilizations in the development of science from the ancient period to the Middle Age cannot be ignored. There are several perspectives and practices that were evident during Islamic civilizations that laid a foundation for the development of science. Household names in the scientific field are Aristotle and Ptolemy, who came up with significant scientific discoveries. However, between during the ancient period, the two contradicted each other on several occasions, which was seen as a threat to the development of science. This is where the role of Islamic civilization comes in, as it made continuous attempts to save Ptolemy and Aristotle. In essence, Islamic civilization tried as much as possible to ensure that Ptolemy’s astronomy and that of Aristotle worked harmoniously. Further, Islamic civilization and domain provided a platform where other philosophers and astronomers ground scientific work masterminded by Aristotle and Ptolemy. This resulted in the successful introduction of scientific ideologies such as the solar model, which are still in use in society today (Saliba 171-91).
It should also be noted that Islamic civilization resulted to numerical system, which was integrated into science and arithmetic, and is still used today. Similarly, the decimal system that is predominant in the scientific and arithmetic fields was a product of Islamic civilization. In fact, the decimal system has since its inception helped in the description of whole numbers and fractions, thanks to Islamic civilization. Moreover, there are several institutions established during Islamic civilization that played a crucial role in the development of science. One of the institutions is Alexandria Library in Egypt, which provided a platform for scientific experiments and also enabled acquisition of scientific knowledge. Also, one of the crucial discoveries during Islamic civilization was Islamic medicine, which laid a foundation for scientists to create medicine that is still used today for the treatment of illnesses (BBC Science and Islam 1).
BBC Science and Islam 1- The Language of Science, August 12, 2012.
Saliba, George. Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT Press, 2007. Print.