Manifest destiny is a phrase for the attitude that was widespreadin the 19th century period of American enlargement that the United States was predestined to stretch from coast to coast. It was the belief by Anglo-Saxon Americans that the United States was fated to expand across North America and impart idealism in institutions that had the ability of self-government. The attitude assisted in fuelling western settlement, exclusion of Native Americans, and conflict with Mexico. John L. O’Sullivan was the first person to use the phrase in an editorial on annexing Texas.The enlargement could entail both territorial extensionand increasedfreedom and personal economic prospect. O’Sullivan declared that their manifest destiny to extend to the entire continent was granted by fate for the free advancement of their increasing millions. Individuals anticipating to acquire Oregon Territory, California, Mexican land in the Southwest, and Cuba in the 1850s, embraced the phrase ‘Manifest destiny’ was initially a partisan Democratic issue but it acquired Republican adherents with time. Towards the end of the century, expansionists were applying quasi-Darwinist thinking to argue that since its ‘Anglo-Saxon heritage’ enabled America to be supremely fit, it had become the country’s ‘manifest destiny’ to spread its influence outside its continental borders into the Pacific and Caribbean basins.
The gold rush led to the rapidgrowth of California; several roads, churches, schools and towns wereconstructed to contain the gold-diggers. There was also a rapid growth of small settlementsinto big cities as individuals travelled to Californiafrom all parts of the world. The sudden increase in population around the gold mining regions enticedmerchants and traders to open shops for commerce, hotels, stores, and other businesses. The gold rush also facilitated the creation of San Francisco port. Moreover, capital investment increased and the first transcontinental railroad to California was built. Risen population, economic growth, and development of agriculture accelerated the admission of California into the Union in 1850, making it the 31st state. Additionally, lode mining resulted in the invention of new mining machinery, for example, compressed-air drills. Furthermore, low-grade ores were many and this resulted in the introduction of chemical processes for other means of recovering gold. Trading and commerce in the gold rush necessitated the government to open new roads and offer means of transporting goods and services in California.This progress also encouraged farmers to expand land cultivation to increase food production. Additionally, agriculture became the top industry in California with the new roads and the opening of the transcontinental railroad.
The thought of annexing Texas was prevalent in the South but extensively opposed in the North. Texas could signify another slave state and the nature of its society did not appeal to civilized New Englanders. The argument against the Annexation of Texas was that it could make the nation engage in encroachment, war, and crime. Additionally, President Tyler tried to effectannexation as a subject of national policy in 1844 but a communique from John C. Calhoun, the secretary of the state, to the British envoy in Washington, which stated that annexation was essential for the preservation of slavery in America led to sectional controversy.
An agreement to Annex Texas was issued to the State on 22 April 1844. In disagreement, Rep Joshua Giddings, an Ohio Whing, condemned the prospect in a speech to the House on May 21, 1844. He stated the advantages of the balance of power that the North and West had. Furthermore, the query of admitting Texas to the Union emerged largely in the 1844 election. Forces supporting admission comprised pro-slavery Southerners and individuals of all political stripes who were afraid that Britain was contemplating an active role in Texas. Those who were against annexation were Northerners who challenged the spread of slavery for either moral or economic reasons, and those who projected that admitting Texas could result in war with Mexico.
The immigrants labored as clam diggers and were employed to do the worst, lowest-paid kind of work. Additionally, the Irish were treated poorly, for example, they were frequently ridiculed in newspapers as illiterate drunks and were considered a servant race. The Italian women who were hired to do piece-work from homes spent several days without seeing sunlight, while those who worked outside the home experienced the problem of working long hours in sweatshops. Moreover, the reforms of limiting voting rights for immigrants and barring them from holding public office posed a great challenge to immigrants. Men performed the work of unskilled laborers on municipal projects and low wages made them live in the lowest tier houses. Many immigrants shared one room in structures plagued by infectious disease and vermin.Additionally, they faced verbal and physical mistreatment because they were considered ‘different’. Immigrants were also paid less than the locals on the same job, making them to feel discriminated despite working hard and doing everything to ensure that they adhere to the laws of the nation.