The Greeks often regarded as the birthplace of western civilization because they gave form and meaning to civilization started in the near East. The Greeks are the source of mathematics and science, and invented the ideas of scientific research and knowledge acquisition. Philosophies made by great Greek scholars such as Aristotle, Socrates, and Plato have inspired the way human beings view the world today. Additionally, Greek Models have been used to set up modern arts, drama, poetry, literature, and architecture. Above all, some of governance issues such as form of democracy, equality and value for every person in the society, tolerance, and constructive criticism all have their roots in Greece (Durant 12). Up to this time, Greek cities such as Athens, Thessaloniki, and Piraeus carry ancient forms of architecture, literature, and art, and attract millions of tourists thought the year.
- Socrates was an important Greek philosopher in the Classical period. Unlike pre-Socratic philosophers, Socrates’ main pint of concern was establishing the dynamics of the world and behavior of people. Socrates was perhaps one of first philosophers to coin ethical theories. Plato was also a classical philosopher credited for founding the Academy which became one first institution of higher learning Greece. Plato’s notable ideas include the theory of the soul, the theory of forms, Platonic realism, and Idealism. Aristotle was a classical philosopher credited numerous of his works that covered subjects such as physics, zoology, poetry music, linguistics, and metaphysics. Aristotle’s notable ideas included the theory of the soul, Golden mean, Hexism and Aristotelian Logics. The difference between classical and pre-Socratic philosophers is that the latter were not influenced by Socrates and were not indebted to him in any way (Guthrim Chambers,and Warren 67).
- The Odyssey is a Greek Poem written by Hommer that follows the escapades of Odysseus after Troy had fallen. It took Odysseus ten years to arrive in Ithaca after the end of the Trojan War. While he way, most people thought he death and the Menesteres even begun to compete to marry Odysseus’ wife, Penelope. Medea was a play written by Euripedes and tells a story where Jason left his wife Medea and when his offered another wife, Glauce, by the Corinthian King. Medea then avenges her husband betrayal by killing the children he had with new wife. Oedipus the King was written by Sophocles and depicts the story of Oedipus as the King of Thebes. Oedipus became king after killing his father and taking his thrown. He also married his own mother after solving a riddle thrown by Spinhx. In the end, Oedipus’ mother hangs herself after discovering that she had married her son. One of the most notable differences between Greek Drama and Modern drama is that the former was solely acted by males while the latter is acted by both male and female.
- In Athens, the government was elected through limited democracy where a few people voted. In Sparta, the government was an oligarchy and had blended some elements of a monarch and those of a democratic state (Guthrie 45).Throughout History, Sparta was ruled by two rulers and Athenian leaders were elected on an annual basis. Before Athens became a democratic society, there was a tyrannical system of governance where rulers ruled the city with iron fist. However, philosophers and activist fought hard and democracy was adopted.
Durant, Will. The life of Greece: The story of Civilization. Vol. 2. Simon and Schuster, 2011.
Guthrie, William Keith Chambers, and James Warren. The Greek Philosophers from Thales to
Aristotle. Routledge, 2012.