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Sample Research Paper on Health: Prevention of Diseases

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Sample Research Paper on Health: Prevention of Diseases

1.0 Abstract

Health refers to the state at which an individual derives comfort and happiness. This state cannot be achieved if the individual is suffering from a disease as illnesses deny patients the opportunity to seek and achieve fulfillment in life. This research study is therefore focusing on how health can be achieved and sustained by preventing diseases. It will discuss how diseases prompt patients to seek medical services that can be costly. Thus, it will discuss factors hindering human beings to achieve health. For example, it will discuss environmental, social, and economic factors denying the general public comfort and happiness. Questionnaires, interviews, and surveys will be utilized to collect data affirming individual are responsible for promoting health. They however experience issues beyond their control incapacitating their efforts to prevent diseases.

The research study also focuses on how people from diverse genders and age groups with different educational levels working in different conditions and participate in prevention of diseases. The methods of collecting research data will therefore gather findings from participants on how they adopt and embrace disease prevention programs and projects. As a result, the research study will determine how people can be encouraged and motivated in order to willing participate and support efforts vital in disease prevention. Consequently, the research study will conclude how the general public can succeed in prevention of diseases.






Health: Prevention of Diseases

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Disease Prevention

Health refers to the absence of diseases and illnesses in order for human beings to be free of symptoms prompting them to seek medical treatment. Lack of health therefore prompts patients to seek clinical diagnosis or medical interventions in order to assess the symptoms and treat diseases they are likely to suffer from. This process therefore does not involve either promotion of health or prevention of diseases as it refers to health care or medical delivery. Preventing diseases therefore emphasizes the need to ensure human beings continue enjoying the state of optimum capacity in order to perform their expected roles and regulations willingly and persistently. Thus, persons either unable or unwillingly fulfilling their roles and tasks should not be considered as healthy. This is because they have failed to prevent diseases such as coughs, muscle pains, colds, and mental distress among others adversely affecting their mental, physical, and emotional capacities (Leiyu, & Douglas, 2015).

World Health Organization defines health care systems as activities undertaken to primarily promote, restore, and maintain health among human beings. Health care should therefore include more than medical care as there are assortment of services utilized in improving well being and health statutes. For example, a large group of the human population has been relying on holistic health as it emphasizes on the whole and complete aspect of well being. As a result, they have been relying on holistic medicine to diagnose and treat diseases hindering emotional, nutritional, mental, environmental, and spiritual comfort and happiness. They should however focus on capturing essence of overall satisfaction, comfort, and happiness in life. For example, they should pursue life domains allied to comfort including security, attention to personal likes and preferences, privacy, respect, sense of independence, and autonomy in decision making (WHO, 2008).

Consequently, they ought to seek overall satisfaction and happiness in life often based on self-perceptions with regards to medical interventions. Combining these qualities enhance life and positive effects on personal abilities to function and fulfill various roles, regulations, and obligations while promoting self-worth and a sense of being fulfilled. As a result, natural and manmade threats neither promoting nor protecting health through massive operations to enhance preparedness in disease prevention should be identified (Doncho, Gordana, & Lijana, 2007).

Appropriate tools to be utilized by properly trained and skilled health care staffs should also be identified. Consequently, the medical care field will apply the tools in conducting public awareness campaigns to promote public health. This will be a supportive undertaking encouraging and motivating the general public to adopt and embrace measures being implemented to prevent diseases. More so, the general public will support efforts undertaken by civil defense agencies at federal, state, and local levels to implement national initiatives developing and coordinating countermeasures including new vaccines and health care infrastructures crucial on prevention of diseases. Consequently, diseases such as colds, coughs, and smallpox will be prevented from attacking either adults or children (Leiyu, & Douglas, 2015).

Health promotion and disease prevention is a program built on three principles. The first principle is based on the understanding of risk factors that are agents, hosts, and environmental contributors hindering health. As a result, a health risk appraisal should be conducted to determine and evaluate how the risk factors interfere with health. Consequently, the findings can be utilized in developing interventions to assist human beings in adopting and embracing healthier choices and lifestyles. The second principle is based on two intervention approaches utilized in countering risk factors. The first approach refers to modification of behaviors in order to adopt healthier lifestyles. The second approach refers to therapeutic interventions also applied in enhancing health as well as comfort and happiness. The final principle is based on the need to allocate adequate public health and social services minimizing the negative effects of risk factors in order to prevent and control diseases, outbreaks of illnesses, and infectious agents (Doncho, Gordana, & Lijana, 2007).

There are various avenues utilized to motivate members of the public in altering their behaviors contributing to disabilities, diseases, and deaths. Behavioral changes and modifications are vital as they promote health. For example, motivating people to quit smoking builds their knowledge, skills, and develops positive attitudes required either to quit or avoid smoking. Consequently, advertisements and environmental enticements that do not promote smoking and drug abuse should be applied to enhance health. This proposal therefore aims at addressing factors promoting disease prevention. As a result, the following objectives ought to be addressed.

2.2 Research objectives
  1. Explain the importance of promoting health and disease prevention.
  2. Discuss the primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive efforts intervening against diseases and illnesses.
  3. Discuss health reform laws emphasizing on disease prevention in order to promote health.
  4. Discuss how public health can enhance disease prevention
  5. Discuss how health protection and environmental health can enhance disease prevention.


2.3 Research questions
  1. How are resources and activities in the health field devoted to disease prevention?
  2. What are the most important and immediate needs to be recognized and attended to achieve disease prevention?
  3. What are the structural factors influencing disease prevention?
  4. How can people on individual and group level adopt and embrace disease prevention?
  5. How can people be encouraged and motivated to be willing to support and participate in disease prevention?
2.4 Hypothesis

The proposal will hypothesize that, people’s attitudes play a significant role in disease prevention. As a result, the research will focus on determining how people from different genders, age groups, classes, work conditions, and educational levels play a significant role in disease prevention.

2.5 Population

The population addressed in developing the research refers to the general public. The research will focus on how children and adults participate in disease prevention. This will ensure adequate research findings are acquired in determining how disease prevention can be encouraged and enhanced among members of the public.

2.6 Data Collection

The data collection methods utilized in authoring the research are diverse. They include surveys, questionnaires, and interviews. They will be applied to collect data from the general public. For example, they will determine how the public understands disease prevention. More so, they will gather facts from the general public on measures to undertake to succeed in preventing diseases and illnesses.

2.7 Analysis

The process of analyzing the data collected through interviews, surveys, and questionnaires will rely on the aspect of comparison. As a result, attitudes among the general public will be compared in order to determine their perceptions towards prevention of diseases. Consequently, attitudes depending on gender, age, class, educational level, and work conditions will be classified. The classification will be vital as it will indicate how attitudes among members of the public differ with regards to efforts applied in preventing diseases.

3.0 Literature Review

Doncho, Gordana, and Lijana assert that, health is life’s most vital element and attribute. More so, it is a prerequisite enabling human beings to partake in daily activities. Health therefore enables people to perform duties and tasks ensuring they lead a happy life generally. The aspect of leading a happy and comfortable life often appears as an effortless process. The authors however affirm it can be difficult and diverse as human health reflects on the quality of relationship maintained among people in order to ensure positive expressions enhancing well being are manifested. Thus, the process of developing relations among human beings guarantying they are caring as they share aspects promoting health can be challenging. There are however several measures and approaches that can be applied to enhance health among human beings. For example, the main health approach is developed on the assumption that diseases occur when people disturb natural order of the universe ensuring health is a state of equilibrium. The state of equilibrium is achieved when blood, mucus, and black and yellow yolks namely the liquids of life are not disturbed ensuring they do not provoke diseases. Sustaining the state enables the liquids to continually renew themselves through food prompting them to fight and prevent diseases (Doncho, Gordana, & Lijana, 2007).

The second approach preventing diseases relies on the notion that, man ought to achieve a balance with the surroundings. The unity promotes unity between the body and soul which are considered the natural origins of diseases. Sustaining the unity therefore ensures human beings are playing role in preventing diseases while creating the essence of health. The harmonic organ functioning approach is also applied in preventing diseases and guarantying health prosperity. Through this approach, diseases are regarded as disturbances hindering body organs to harmonically function due to pathological agents found in the environments. Thus, when diseases are diagnosed the doctor is required to identify and eliminate the harmful agents and prescribe therapy enhancing harmonic organ functioning. These approaches therefore affirm that, health is achieved when people engage in moral behaviors seeking philosophical meaning to life. The philosophical meaning ought to enhance comfort, happiness, and fulfillment in life (Doncho, Gordana, & Lijana, 2007).

World Health Organization has also defined acceptable dynamics regarding to health. World Health Organization asserts that, policies ensuring and enhancing public health ought to be re-oriented and directed towards prevention of diseases. This is because preventing diseases is a major problem solving skill guarantying health. World Health Organization however, also acknowledges the process of enhancing health can be complex and challenging as diverse factors have to be identified. This is because achieving a state of complete physical, mental, emotional, and psychological well being does not guarantee absence of disabilities and diseases. For example, some human beings living with hearing, talking, and walking disabilities are able to achieve a state of complete well being psychologically, physically, mentally, and emotionally. More so, people living with HIV are counseled and assisted to lead a state they can derive emotional and mental being while remaining physically and psychologically balanced. As a reason, families, communities, ecological systems, and the global society ought to be identified and their roles in preventing diseases acknowledged and classified accordingly (WHO, 2008).

According to Cabuslay, Clayton, and Weiss, activities promoting health and strengthening factors preventing diseases should be directed towards health resources to reduce health risks on individual, group, and community levels. For example, resources promoting self esteem and coping abilities among people and communities should be acknowledged and applied. Consequently, human beings can rely on their skills and capacities to utilize the resources in preventing diseases without necessarily on professional services. Empowering people on individual and community level is therefore vital preventing diseases and enhancing health. As a result, health care researchers, policy makers and practitioners ought to identify resources and measures tackling health inequities. Consequently, systematic approaches providing the general public with best practices that are scientifically based and evidenced in preventing diseases and promoting health can be implemented. For example, people should be encouraged to live, love, play, and work to create and enhance health and wealth. They however, require scientifically based evidence to identify applicable measures in preventing diseases. This will ensure they are empowered and committed in promoting health by preventing diseases (Cabuslay, Clayton, & Weiss, 2012).

According to the International Society of Nephrology Research and Prevention Committee, diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality across the globe among developing and developed nations. Chronic communicable diseases such as diabetes, chronic kidney, hypertension, and cardiovascular illnesses are a global burden rapidly increasing among developing nations. The chronic diseases are therefore replacing acute and communicable diseases to pose a dominant health problem as they also cause disabilities and death despite the patients using health resources extensively. As a result, the research committee has developed an early detection and intervention program applicable globally to be implemented in ensuring global populations achieve health. The program however should be implemented depending on particular health care needs, organization facilities, and economic imperatives differing among global nations (ISN, 2010).

For example, the Kidney Hypertension Diabetes, and Cardiovascular program was developed with the aim of detecting and managing kidney diseases, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular syndromes. Through the program, people are screened to determine the managerial phase to undergo in order to regulate any of the diseases they may be ailing from. The program however, is also flexible as it allows data assessment on a competitive basis while taking account of the local teams’ abilities to adopt it to address local needs. This further allows the program to continue encouraging local capacities for further regional expansions to be achieved in order to prevent and control diseases. International Society of Nephrology therefore acknowledges that, it lacks the capacity to provide funds required to develop prevention programs as preventing some diseases requires substantial resources and long-term commitment which can be financially overwhelming (ISN, 2010).

Prevention of diseases therefore requires resources and efforts from various agents crucial in promoting health. For example, disease prevention programs should involve doctors, nurses, health care workers, and practitioners as well as the government to establish and develop appropriate measures preventing diseases. Consequently, the government should increase public and national awareness on risk factors hindering disease prevention. It should also encourage the public to undergo screening of diseases. This will ensure medical practitioners will determine how they can manage health while preventing diseases. More so, the government should fund health care projects and programs researching how and what causes diseases in order to formulate and implement measures preventing them from attacking the comfortable, capacitated, and happy general public (Leiyu, & Douglas, 2015).

According to David Murray, the National Institute of Health Office of Disease Prevention is tasked in developing strategic plans promoting health. It is also required to ensure public health is achieved while addressing challenges associated with increase in health care costs and financial constraints. As a result, it should focus on improving prevention research while assisting healthcare facilities and practitioners in collaborating with public and private sectors to develop scientific expertise in disease prevention. In 1986, the Office of Disease Prevention was established as a directive of the Health Research Extension Act in order to promote and coordinate researches allied to prevention of diseases. Currently, it is also required to enhance public health. It is therefore required to increase the quality, dissemination, scope, and impact of disease prevention. Consequently, it ought to provide leadership in development, coordination, and implementation of disease prevention programs (David, 2014).

The Prevention Research Coordinating Committee has been working to ensure prevention researches are established to enhance the practical value of health. As a result, primary and secondary disease prevention strategies have been designed to promote health. They are also applied in preventing onset of diseases, injuries, disorders, and conditions adversely affecting health statutes in the general public. Consequently, it detects and controls progression of diseases by targeting biological and individualistic behaviors across social and physical environments to enhance health. As a result, it evaluates health services to inform policy and decision makers to implement regulations to achieve disease prevention. The following studies are also conducted while undertaking prevention research. The study identifying and assessing risks and protective factors are conducted to assist in determining measures to mitigate risk factors attributing to spread of diseases (PRCC, 2010).

A study on the screening and identification of people, groups, and communities at risk is conducted to determine measures to protect them. A study on development and evaluation of interventions is also conducted to reduce and mitigate risk factors attributing to spread of diseases. A study translating, implementing, and disseminating effective interventions into practice is vital as it ensures individuals, groups, and communities are prevented from diseases. Lastly, a study developing methods to support prevention of diseases is conducted to ensure measures mitigating spread of diseases are continually identified and implemented effectively and efficiently (Leiyu, & Douglas, 2015).

According to the World Health Organization, promoting health while preventing diseases involves various steps. Foremost, a healthy people initiative should be developed. It should provide comprehensive details on how sets of diseases can be prevented. This paves way for a national prevention strategy to be implemented. It should be designed to increase the number of people regarded as healthy across various stages of life. The Affordable Care Act of 2010 is therefore a strategy implemented to provide recommendations that are evidence based and fundamental in enhancing health nationally. It ensures private and public sectors are actively engaged in preventing diseases. Stakeholders and partners in the healthcare sector should provide scientific input based on topics discussed with the goal of sharing quality information on how to prevent diseases. The quality information however, should be evidence based. This will prompt healthcare professional, policy makers and researchers apply the information diversely depending on the medical needs, medical, and clinical areas across various sections in the general public pursuing disease prevention (WHO, 2008).

Consequently, pathways allowing disease prevention programs can be coordinated by experts. Including the experts is crucial as they are skilled, qualified, and experienced in identifying healthcare needs and weaknesses in order to determine the methodology to apply in implementing the prevention program. Consequently, community preventive service task forces should be established. They should be independent comprising of non-federal disease prevention experts. The experts ought to design systematic reviews depending on disease prevention research findings with the aim of developing recommendations to promote public health. The experts can also liaise with the United States Preventive Services Task Force to design research findings to develop a broad range of clinical preventive healthcare services. More so, they can collaborate and coordinate with primary care clinicians and health systems to draft clinical practice guidelines in order to distribute information to the general public on measures and precautions to undertake to prevent diseases (CDC, 2015).

For example, occupational diseases can be prevented by identifying environmental hazards attributing them to spread. According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, surveillance should be conducted to identify environmental hazards spreading occupational diseases such as lung infections. Health preventive experts can therefore rely on the surveillance results to educate the general public on how to prevent occupational lung diseases. With regards to lung diseases, the public should be educated and provided with skills ensuring they understand that asbestos, silica, and cotton dusts are some of the environmental hazards. A medical surveillance however, should also be conducted to estimate prevalence of diseases. It is vital as it identifies exposures attributing to the practical value in the spread of diseases. Data should also be collected to determine the numbers of people in a particular area are treated for various diseases including occupational and chronic ailments. Consequently, healthcare facilities, practitioners, and experts in various sets of diseases cannot identify mitigating factors to prevent the spread of diseases in the future across the country (CDC, 2015).

According to Brownson, Fielding, and Maylahn (2009), evidence based measures ought to be implemented to achieve public health. The measures are critically applied towards disease prevention efforts constituting evidence based policies and practices to develop community based prevention programs. Researchers, decision and policy makers as well as healthcare practitioners recognized the importance of evidence based programs and projects. They rely on the evidence to develop comprehensive frameworks understanding the decisions and policies implemented to succeed in preventing diseases. Consequently, contextual evidence is applied in determining how the policies, decisions, and practices are impacting communities striving to achieve disease prevention. A collection of measurable factors such as social norms and the community’s history and capacity should therefore be relied on as it provides crucial information to help and enhance the disease prevention projects and programs (Brownson, Fielding, & Maylahn, 2009). Lastly, the experiential evidence referring to a collection of experiences and expertise should be relied on to understand skills required in prevention of diseases. Experienced experts therefore rely on experiential evidence to gather facts from a community. The facts are shared with healthcare stakeholders to determine if the disease prevention programs are compatible and applicable with the community’s resources and settings respectively. Consequently, the most appropriate disease prevention strategies and practices are identified and implemented to provide the community with distinctive guidance in the form of real world experiences (Sally, 2010).

Ultimately, mitigating risk factors in order to prevent diseases involves collaborating and coordinating with individuals, groups, and communities in the country. For example, the general public should be included during awareness campaigns in order to encourage them to adopt disease prevention measures. This will ensure they acknowledge the act of washing hands after visiting the washrooms and before cooking and eating prevents various diseases. It will also guarantee the general public appreciate that drinking treated water will also prevent diseases (David, 2014).

4.0 Method

The method applied in conducting a research on disease prevention among the general public relied on questionnaires, surveys, and interviews. The research aimed at gathering data acquired from diverse groups within the general public. As a result, members of the general public were divided into ten groups comprising of ten participants. The method however had to reduce the probability of collecting biased data. Participants in each group were therefore diversely distributed ensuring each healthcare issue discussed on the research would be relevant. This prompted participants in each group to be diversely distributed in gender, age group, educational levels, work conditions, and socioeconomic classes. The participants included high school learners, university undergraduate and graduate students, and persons within the working class. The participants therefore ranged between ten years and above. Some high school learners however, were below the legal age. As a result, they were required to be accompanied by their parents.

Some persons within the working class were willing to participate in the research. The work schedules however were conflicting with some of the research plan. As a result, they were requested to provide their email addresses in order to send the questionnaires and interview questions. The rest were requested to participate in a survey determining how educational levels and work conditions influence individuals’ efforts to promote health and prevent diseases. The questionnaires, interviews, and surveys were therefore selected as methods of collecting data as they reduce the rate of gathering biased research results. consequently, they ensure biased findings are not utilized in a research. More importantly, the methods observe ethical considerations likely to affect participants will and desire in the data collection method. For example, the questionnaires and interview questions that were emailed ensured participants willing to participate while maintaining anonymity provide their input. Conversely, the surveys provided the general public with an opportunity to state and explain how they perceive and understand issues relating to disease prevention. The methods were therefore appropriate and ethically approved for the research. 

5.0 Results and Findings

The research findings had to be retrieved from the general public. As a result, a set of questions was developed to be posed to members of the general public through surveys, interviews, and questionnaires in order to gather answers that can be analyzed to determine the general public’s attitude, understanding, and efforts in prevention of diseases. The members of the public were therefore required to answer the following questions.

  1. What do you understand with disease prevention?
  2. At what age should members of the public participate in prevention of diseases?
  3. Do you think men and women participate equally in prevention of diseases?
  4. How can members of the public from diverse social classes participate in prevention of diseases?
  5. Do educational levels influence measures undertaken in prevention of diseases?
  6. How can you describe work conditions either suitable or unsuitable in prevention of diseases?
5.1 Findings

The data collected revealed the following. The general public understands that prevention of diseases involves undertaking measures in order to avoid seeking professional medical services. Correspondents aged between ten and eighteen years asserted that, diseases such as a cold and a flu can be prevented by keeping warm and adopting a healthy lifestyle comprising of healthy nutritional diets. They however also noted that, such diseases do not necessarily require an individual to seek professional medical attention as homemade remedies can be applied to treat them. Their sentiments were also shared by correspondents aged above eighteen years. They however emphasized that, physical exercise is also in prevention of diseases. They also encouraged human beings to undergo professional medical checkups regularly in order to detect diseases before they fully manifest.  As a result they noted people should embrace regular visits to the dentists, ear, nose and throat doctors, and gynecologists among other specialists. This will guarantee the specialist will detect a disease before it is manifested providing the individual with medical services to prevent the illness from blossoming and spreading.

For example, correspondents above eighteen years within the working class asserted that, most of them are sexually active. As a result, they should observe physical measures preventing illnesses especially sexually transmitted diseases. For example, they should always observe protection before engaging in sexual behaviors. These sentiments therefore could not be gathered from male and female correspondents below the legal age. Correspondents from diverse age groups including the young and elderly however agreed that, male and female members of the public should be responsible in ensuring they achieve and sustain health. They also agreed that, everyone at an age they are able to understand measures required to achieve and promote health should participate in prevention of diseases.

As a result, students and the working class should observe measures implemented in prevention of diseases. For example, they should not defile the environments in order to prevent chronic diseases. Consequently, they should not pollute natural resources utilized in fulfilling the general public’s daily needs. Thus, everyone should be responsible in ensuring he/she does not pollute either water or air preventing communicable and chronic diseases. Data gathered to differentiate how the genders differ as they participate in prevention of diseases revealed the following. Female correspondents below eighteen years affirmed they are more involved in prevention of diseases than their counterparts. They asserted that, promoting health involves physical, mental, and emotional well being. They claimed that, their male counterparts observe physical well being. They however undergo emotional and mental suffering due to social pressures including bullying which is rampant among the youths without seeking help and counseling. Thus, they are prone to suffer due to lack of psychological well being. Female correspondents among the youths also asserted that, various diseases can be prevented by washing of hands regularly. They however claimed their male counterparts are neither keen nor dedicated in the act of washing hands before. For example, some male students affirmed they hardly wash their hands before eating as they do not assess the situations they have been and diseases that can be associated with the dirt and germs they are carrying. They therefore agreed that, the female counterparts are not prone to colds and coughs as they are keener in observing simple measures crucial in promoting health and preventing diseases.

Social classes among the participants revealed the following. Foremost, they agreed everyone is responsible in promoting individual health. They also agreed that, poverty leads to malnutrition which neither promotes health nor prevents diseases. They therefore noted that, some people from low socioeconomic classes are more prone to diseases as they lack the resources crucial in prevention of diseases. For example, a group of correspondents from low socioeconomic classes provided various reasons they are prone to diseases than their high and middle socioeconomic classes. Foremost, they live in congested areas due to lack of resources to seek and afford housing facilities with better residential conditions. Thus, they live in areas that are overcrowded hindering effective and efficient supply of clean water. More so, they struggle accessing clean water for washing, drinking, and cooking as the commodity can be rare and expensive to acquire especially among people residing in the projects. As a result, they are prone to diseases such as skin rashes and bacterial infections among other illnesses associated with insufficient and polluted air and water.  Coupled with lack of financial abilities and medical covers to seek professional healthcare services, they suffer from various chronic and communicable diseases they believe can either be prevented or successfully treated.

Conversely, participants from the middle and high socioeconomic resources also noted they face various challenges as they promote health and prevent diseases. For example, both male and female participants asserted that some medical insurance packages do not cover patients with a high risk of suffering from various chronic diseases. This problem is faced by elderly members of the public with a high probability of acquiring chronic conditions. Such conditions are considered expensive to control and treat. As a result, if they develop the chronic conditions they lack financial capabilities to seek treatment. Consequently, they are exposed to other diseases. For example, an elderly member of the community suffering from hypertension requires medication to control the condition. Failure to control the diseases exposes them to other diseases including diabetes, anxiety attacks, and heart failure which are often fatal. Although these sentiments were provided by participants from middle socioeconomic classes, they are also shared by persons from low socioeconomic classes.

Ultimately, they affirm socioeconomic resources are crucial in prevention of diseases. The resources are vital as they empower members of the general public to lead lifestyles promoting health in order to prevent chronic and communicable diseases. Individuals predisposed to various diseases also need the resources in order to prevent other diseases associated with either chronic or communicable illnesses. More so, financial resources are crucial as they enable and empower individuals to seek professional medical services from healthcare practitioners skilled and experienced in addressing how diseases can be prevented and controlled. Insufficient financial resources have therefore led to loss of lives lacking the ability to lead healthy lifestyles or seek professional healthcare services to elongate the lifespan.

The questionnaires, interviews, and surveys were also posed to a group of participants with various educational levels. They included high school and university students pursuing diverse studies. For example, the university participants included undergraduate and graduate students either concentrating on their studies or working to supplement their theoretical and practical skills. A discussion revealed persons from diverse educational levels provided their different insights with regard to health promotion and prevention of diseases. High school students asserted that, diseases are mainly attributed to poverty and lack of awareness coupled with insufficient socioeconomic resources to pursue healthcare services. For example, they asserted that some members of the public residing below the poverty line do not access communication channels utilized to raise awareness on the need to promote health through prevention of diseases. They also noted that, persons living in poverty lack resources required to seek professional healthcare services promoting health and preventing diseases. These issues are coupled with lack of financial capacities to purchase foods guarantying them happy and comfortable lifestyles while consuming nutritional foods as they can neither access nor afford them. As a result, they are neither able to eat healthy nutritional diets nor seek healthcare services promoting health while preventing diseases. This therefore exposes them to various diseases and illnesses.

Conversely, university students included issues allied to cultural expectations when promoting health. They asserted that, cultural appropriateness is vital among members of the general public as it influences their religious beliefs and practices. Thus, cultural appropriateness is vital while promoting health as some practices can violate people’s norms and beliefs. For example, some cultures do not consume animal proteins as witnessed among Hindu believers. Thus, they should not be required to consumer animal proteins in order to promote health and prevent diseases. They also noted that, members of the general public identify with diverse perceptions and expectations in promoting health. For example, some people identify with the perception of promoting health and preventing diseases involving consumption of small food proportions coupled with exercise. Conversely, others expect to eat any proportions of food as long as they exercise in order to ensure their body organs are functioning effectively and efficiently crucial in promoting health and preventing diseases. Participants from diverse educational levels however agreed that, promoting health is an individualistic responsibility. Members of the general public should therefore seek professional guidance to achieve and sustain health in order to prevent diseases. This will ensure individualistic perceptions, expectations, and cultural norms are respected in developing a plan to prevent diseases and promote health within socioeconomic needs.

Labor laws in the country assert that, work conditions should be safe and secure in order to promote health among the workers. Some work conditions however can termed as safe and secure by the employees who also acknowledge they are psychologically unhealthy. For example, some participants affirmed they work in industrial conditions often regarded as dangerous. They however claimed the employers ensure they are protected and safeguarded from various dangers that can lead to injuries and fatalities. Thus, they are prevented from disabilities and diseases such as hypertension as they are guaranteed the work conditions preserve and promote their health conditions. Other however claimed that, their work conditions do not pose physical danger as they affect how they achieve emotional, mental, and psychological comfort and happiness.

Work conditions promoting health and preventing diseases should therefore ensure employees function in environments that are safe. Due to the fines incurred by employers failing to observe this regulation, most work conditions across the nation are often declared as safe and healthy. Employees participating during data collection however noted that, some internal factors within the work environments neither promote health nor prevent diseases. For example, some claimed they work in offices that are spacious with employers providing them with medical insurance packages and nutritional diets during work hours. They however noted that, some factors beyond employers’ abilities interfere with their efforts to enhance health. They noted that, work place bullying is rampant in some offices. Some work conditions also comprise of employees keen in inflicting psychological and emotional abuse. It is therefore vital for human resource managers to conduct regular interviews with the employees to ensure they are not undergoing abuse and bullying incidences. Consequently, employees will achieve health and prevent diseases associated with emotional and psychological abuse. For example, incidences of suicides among employees will decrease. More so, employees will not suffer from low self esteem, anxiety attacks, and depression. As a result, employees will be keen in ensuring they prevent chronic and communicable diseases to enhance health.

6.0 Conclusion/Implications
6.1 Implications

The research findings reveal that, individuals acknowledge they are responsible for achieving health and preventing diseases that can hinder them from leading happy, comfortable, and fulfilling lives. The participants also acknowledge that, they ought to access health insurance coverage in order to seek quality healthcare services professionally to sustain health. In 2012, the United States Census Bureau revealed more than one hundred and ninety four million Americans have private health insurance coverage (EPPCIC, 2010). The benefits associated with the insurance coverage are reaped by government employees, the elderly members of the community, persons living with disabilities, people with low incomes, children from low income families, and special populations in the general public. The Medicare and Medicaid insurance coverage packages were therefore established to promote health diversely across the nation through federal, state, and local levels. There are however more than fifty million persons across United States without health insurance. More so, they reside in residents stricken with poverty coupled with high rates of pollution and overcrowding conditions neither promoting health nor preventing diseases (Baum, Begin, Houweling, & Taylor, 2009).

The health care reforms should therefore ensure health insurance covers expand to address healthcare needs among uninsured persons. The Affordable Care Act of 2010 should continue to be applied as a law in attempts to reduce the number of insured Americans and legal residents. Insurance companies should commence covering children and young adults under their parents’ insurance plans. Employers on the other hand, ought to provide health insurance as a mandatory requirement in order to ensure employees are providing skills and services in safe and healthy work conditions and environments. Social structural factors influencing peoples’ efforts to promote health and prevent diseases should also be evaluated. Americans and legal residents are suffering from heart related diseases at rampant rates that have been worrying. Some of the victims have affirmed they suffer from hypertension as they had embraced a lifestyle that was not keen on nutritional diets and physical exercise. Others especially the elderly have claimed they have been exposed to risky behaviors and condition neither preventing nor controlling onset of heart related diseases (Leiyu, & Douglas, 2015).

Family and community settings as well as social networks should therefore develop links with different levels of health status. For example, family members should develop social networks linked with healthcare services promoting health and preventing health. Such services include regular jogging sessions either in the morning or afternoon and swimming exercises coupled with gym attendances. These services will ensure the participants achieve physical exercise required to ensure individualistic psychological, emotional, and mental abilities in fighting and preventing diseases are functioning effectively and efficiently. Neighborhood and community structures also influence social distribution of pathologies and risk factors to diseases. Human beings should therefore embrace pathologies spreading love, kindness, peace, and understanding in the community. This will encourage everyone to be caring and supportive towards each other as people pursue to promote health and prevent diseases. Consequently, diseases associated with low self esteem, depression, anxiety, and bullying will be prevented. As a result, members of the community will achieve physical, emotional, mental, and psychological health (CDC, 2015).

The sociopolitical and socioeconomic forces also influence how people promote and sustain health. The government has been keen in developing healthcare programs tasked in promoting health across federal, state, and local levels. The government ensures the programs are steered by healthcare practitioners trained, skilled, and experienced in addressing medical issues in a social context. The sociopolitical economy of the health care however has not been paying attention on measures developed to prevent diseases. For example, healthcare facilities across the sector in the country have been keen on making profits. They therefore focus on American Medical Association activities earning the industry profits without prioritizing on providing quality services to persons across diverse socioeconomic classes. The government’s efforts to refocus on healthcare arrangements in order to develop healthcare organizations relevant towards prevention rather than treatment of diseases should be persistent (Betancourt, 2006).

According to John McKinlay (1975), healthcare researchers, policy makers, stakeholders, and practitioners assert that the healthcare sector is an unequal battle between the downstream and upstream efforts. John emphasizes that, there are manufacturers of diseases ensuring those required to treat the diseases are declared as victorious. The competition has led health workers and manufacturers of illnesses to compete in order to determine who is more relevant. As a result, the general public suffers as health workers often respond and intervene after diseases have been manufactured and the real damage done. For example, cigarette manufacturers are always competing with health workers. They supply the general public with cigarettes harmful to their health as they attribute towards chronic diseases including lung cancer. The health workers however do not intervene unless some members of the general public report to health facilities seeking professional help after suffering from heart diseases, cancer, and chronic respiratory ailments. The fight between disease manufacturers and health workers should therefore be a battle fought in the upstream. The upstream battle will ensure disease prevention measures are successful, effective, and consistent in efforts to promote health in the general public (Hopkins, 2009).

Raising public awareness on the cost benefits associated with prevention of diseases is also vital. It will encourage the members of public to embrace measures implemented to prevent diseases. Consequently, they will adopt a culture promoting health by shunning risky behaviors such as drug abuse, pollution of the environment, and failure to be responsible in embracing nutritional diets and physical exercise to achieve bodily and psychological health. This will prompt the general public to achieve physiological and emotional equilibrium attaining a state at which everyone is comfortable, happy, and fulfilled (John, 1975).

6.2 Conclusion

Promoting health through prevention of diseases involves financing, insurance, delivery, and payment of functions providing the general public with quality healthcare services. The components often overlap varying between private and public systems implemented by the government to enhance health in the country. The general public however should seek financing to obtain health insurance in order to afford payment of quality health care services. Health care providers including dentists, therapists, and gynecologists should deliver quality services enhancing health. They should also provide the public with tips to control and prevent diseases in the future. Lastly, providers of quality healthcare services should be reimbursed for their skills and expertise as they desire to ensure the general public is comfortable and happy.



7.0 References

Baum, F., Begin, M., Houweling, T., & Taylor, S. (2009). Changes not for the fainthearted: Reorienting Health Care Systems toward Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Framing Health Matter, 99(11).

Betancourt, R. (2006). Improving Quality and Achieving Equity: The Role of Cultural Competence in Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. New York, The Commonwealth Fund.

Brownson, R., Fielding, J., & Maylahn, A. (2009). Evidence-Based Public Health: A Fundamental Concept for Public Health Practice. Annual Review of Public Health, 30(1), 175-201.

Cabuslay, E., Clayton, K., & Weiss, L. (2012). Framework for a Comprehensive Chronic Disease Prevention Movement in California: Lessons Learned from Tobacco Control. California Conference of Local Directors of Health Education.

Centers for Diseases (CDS). (2015). Proposed National Strategies for the Prevention of Leading Work-Related Diseases and Injuries. U.S Department of Health and Human Services.

David, M. (2014). The Office of Disease Prevention: Strategic Plan 2014-2018. National Institute of Health, Office of Disease Prevention.

Doncho, D., Gordana, P., & Lijana, K. (2007). Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. A Handbook for Teachers, Researches, Health Professionals and Decision Makers

Expert Patients Programme Community Interest Company (EPPCIC). (2010). Self Care Reduces Cost and Improves Health: The Evidence. Expert Patients Programme Community Interest Company.

Hopkins, J. (2009). Towards a More Equitable Local Health System. Presentation at “Who are we serving? A Workshop on Hospital-Based Strategies to Identify Health Service Inequities.

International Society of Nephrology (ISN). (2010). Non-communicable Chronic Disease Prevention Programs in Developing Countries. International Society of Nephrology Research and Prevention Committee.

John, B. M. (1975). A Case for Refocusing Upstream: The Political Economy of Illness. American Heart Association, Health Care Policy.

Leiyu, S., & Douglas, A. S. (2015). Delivering Health Care in America: A Systems Approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning Publications.

Prevention Research Coordinating Committee (PRCC). (2010). Chronic Disease Prevention and Management. Health Care Safety Net Toolkit for Legislators.

Sally, T. (2010). The Evidence Project Overview. Centers for Diseases Government Initiative.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2008). Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. World Health Organization Report.

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