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Sample Research Paper on Family History Information

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Sample Research Paper on Family History Information

 

Genetic disorder
Family history
Details of article

Bipolar

The family under study here consisted of identical twins both males and other last born girl. Of the twin, one had the disorder and this was traced back to the immediate grandfather who had the disorder. On mothers’ side, no trace of this order was experienced.  Most cases of bipolar hereditary is known among twins, like if one identical twin has bipolar the other twin has a greater chance of developing bipolar than any other child in the family.

 

 

Craddock N. and Jones I. Genetics of bipolar disorder, journal of medical genetics, vol.36, No.8, (585-594), 1999.

Richard H. Huntington’s disease genetics, The Journal of The American Society For Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 2004.

 

Down syndrome

In the year 1862, John Langdon Down was found to have this disorder.  This disorder had not affected one of his grandfathers, additionally, his children had no such symptoms and history has it that the prevalence of this syndrome was seen in families who were at the warzones. Down Syndrome is not a hereditary disorder meaning it cannot be passed from parent to child. Mostly something goes wrong with the egg or sperm for a person to get the disorder.

Malecki M., Zolotukhin S.and Srivastava A.  Journal of Genetic Syndrome and gene therapy, 2015.

Huntington’s disease

An analysis of a family which happened to have both the two children had the disorder, showed that greater grandfather had the disorder and the immediate grandfather to the father had the same disorder. From this analysis it is important to note that this disorder is hereditary from parent, the chances of a mother passing to a child is 50%. This disorder is inherited from one parent, it means if one parent has a faulty gene there is a higher chance of all the children developing Huntington’s disease.

Richard H. Huntington’s disease genetics, The Journal of The American Society For Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 2004.

Cystic Fibrosis

In 2004, a child, Franklin aged 13 was diagnosed with Cystic Fibrosis.  The research goes ahead to connote that the symptoms have not been  in any of the immediate family members except for the extended family like his uncle who had it also while he was at his tender age. It is therefore evident that even if the immediate family doesn’t have it, it can occur due to chromosomal mutations at anytime of the familial generation.  

Steven M., Stacey M., and Eric J. Mechanisms of disease, The New England journal of medicine.2016.

Skin cancer

It is a hereditary disorder and also environmental factors cause it, mostly affecting people above the age of 50 with light skinned people having the highest risk of getting it. 10% of people with melanoma which is a type of skin cancer have family members who had the disease.

Ramya S. and Chidvila V. A review of skin cancer, International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2013.

 

 

 

Autism

A history of a family of two parents and three children showed that the disease was in the male child aged 15 years.  The disorder was also traced back to the grandfather of the child on the father’s side. However, the no symptoms were seen in wife or the other two daughters.  

From this analysis it came out clearly that Autism is hereditary but male children have a higher risk than female. Also younger siblings of a child with autism can develop it too.

Patrick F., Macdonald H. and Andrew P. A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry.1994.

 

Crohn’s disorder

This was found in a family of four, two parents and two daughters where only the daughter had it. The background history shows that one of the grandmothers to the father’s side had myopia while on the father’s side; the grandfather had growth in the eye. It is believed that such conditions were inherited into the child. 

This disorder is hereditary among families. About 20% of people with this disorder have a relative, either a brother or sister or parent. . For example it is possible if one of identical twins has crohn’s disorder, there is a 70% chance for the other one to develop it.

Laurence J., Miles P. and Britta S. Journal of Crohn’s and colitis. 2016.

Kathleen S. and Ellen S. Gaucher disease and the Synucleinopathies, Journal of Bio-medicine and Bio-technology.  2006.

Hemophilia

Hemophilia disorder can be inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern where a gene that causes hemophilia is located on X chromosome which is present in all females. For the family in the case study showed that a hemophilic man had a child with a woman without hemophilia, only one of the daughters had the disorder while others did not have. Additionally, the granddaughter of the hemophilic had the disorder.

S.B. Somwanshi, R.T. Dolas and K.B. Kotade. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. 2014.

Mauser‐Bunschoten, Evelien P., and Roger EG Schutgens. “Old age medicine and hemophilia.” Textbook of Hemophilia, 3 (2014): 154-162.

 

Sickle cell disease

From a family of two sons and daughters, one daughter had the disorder and the others did not. The grandparents also had the disorder. A child born with sickle cell disease inherits it from both parents who must have same gene mutation. If only one parent is affected then the children may have sickle-cell trait. Mostly if both parents have 25% defects, it is likely for all children to be born with it.

 

Malik H., Tariq E. and Omaima N. Frequency of the sickle cell disease sickle cell trait in Heglig area – Sudan, International journal of public health epidemiology. 2013.

Gaucher’s Disease

This one can be passed through families. It is an autosomal recessive disorder meaning a child can inherit it if he/she inherits an altered gene from carrier parent. . If a parent has Gaucher’s disease, it is likely that the children are at risk of inheriting the defective gene disorder or having the disorder itself.

Kathleen S. and Ellen S. Gaucher disease and the Synucleinopathies, Journal of Bio-medicine and Bio-technology.  2006.

Venous Thrombosis

A typical case for this disorder was found in male child aged 6 years and this was evidence by the notion of him not able to walk or sit properly.  The two parents did not have any symptoms of the disease but a trace of the history of the two parents shows that on the mother’s side,  the grandmother had the disorder while she was at her 30 years while on the father’s side,  the disorder was experienced by the great grandfather who suffered with the disorder while was still young at the age of 10 years old

Ozaki, Asuka, and John R. Bartholomew. “Venous Thromboembolism (Deep Venous Thrombosis & Pulmonary Embolism).” Journal of Bio-medicine and Bio-technology.  2009.

 

 

 

It is good to note that genetic disorders are classified into major types, sex-linked disorder being one of them which is found on X chromosome which basically affects men. Autosomal recessive disorder is the second type which means that for a disease or trait to develop; two copies of abnormal genes must be there. The other type is autosomal dominant disorder which is a trend in inheritance where affected person has one normal gene and a copy of mutant gene, in opposition, autosomal dominant disorder needs a person to have two copies of mutant genes. Chromosomal disorders are not inherited; here, a person has more than 46 chromosomes or less. Finally, it should also be noted that not all genetic diseases are hereditary, some may end after a while.

Works Cited

 

Craddock N. and Jones I. Genetics of bipolar disorder, journal of medical genetics, vol.36, No.8, (585-594), 1999.

Kathleen S. and Ellen S. Gaucher disease and the Synucleinopathies, Journal of Bio-medicine and Bio-technology.  2006.

Laurence J., Miles P. and Britta S. Journal of Crohn’s and colitis. 2016.

Malecki M., Zolotukhin S.and Srivastava A.  Journal of Genetic Syndrome and gene therapy, 2015.

Malik H., Tariq E. and Omaima N. Frequency of the sickle cell disease sickle cell trait in Heglig area – Sudan, International journal of public health epidemiology. 2013.

Mauser‐Bunschoten, Evelien P., and Roger EG Schutgens. “Old age medicine and hemophilia.” Textbook of Hemophilia, 3 (2014): 154-162.

Patrick F., Macdonald H. and Andrew P. A case-control family history study of autism. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry.1994.

Richard H. Huntington’s disease genetics, The Journal of The American Society For Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 2004.

Ramya S. and Chidvila V. A review of skin cancer, International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2013.

S.B. Somwanshi, R.T. Dolas and K.B. Kotade. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. 2014.

Steven M., Stacey M., and Eric J. Mechanisms of disease, The New England journal of medicine.2016.

 

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