Sample Healthcare Paper on Nursing Process

1# Describe the diagnosis and staging of cancer
The assessment and analysis of the spread of anatomic disease foster the determination of
a suitable prognosis. Diagnosis is essential in identifying the nature of cancer and medical
practitioners conduct physical exams to determine factors triggering the symptoms. Additionally,
the staging of cancer is vital in the description of the methodology and processes used to
determine the anatomic extent of cancer. According to Greene and Sobin (2008), staging of
cancer is highly effective after a patient diagnosis before any prescription or treatment by the
doctor. Arguably, prognosis fosters a broad understanding of the patient's appropriate treatment
and aids medical practitioners to plan for cancer since the same stage and outlooks characterize
it. Surgery and radiation are fundamental in treating early-stage cancer, while, chemotherapy
aids in the treatment of advanced-stage cancer. However, Leukemia cancer is not staged cancer
since it spread throughout the body by blood cells and prognosis aids to determine which
diagnosis is vital to the patient.
Doctors analyze the spread of cancer in the body through assessing the tumor for its size,
the spread of cancer to other lymph nodes and the location of the disease. On the same aspect of
influence, cancer that spread far from the primary root cause is termed as metastasis. Other
factors that aid in determining the stage of cancer are cancer cell type, the outcome of blood tests
and the grade of cancer. Particularly, the use of advanced tests such as CT scans, biopsy, x-rays,
MRIs, PET scans, and ultrasound champions the provision of information on the cancer spread in
the patient’s body. Notably, the main types of cancer staging are clinical staging and pathologic
staging. Clinical staging enhances the doctor's comprehension of the extent of cancer in a
patient's body through physical exams, tumor biopsies, and imaging tests such as CT scans. The

clinical-stage is essential in enhancing the doctor's determination on which appropriate treatment
to use to a patient and it offers a baseline for comparison on the patient's reception to treatment.
The pathologic staging of cancer depends on clinical staging in the assessment of test and exams.
Besides, it gives the doctor information about how much cancer is in a patient's body and
focusing on distorting the tissue samples. Pathological staging of cancer fosters cancer removal
in lymph nodes safeguarding the spread of cancer. Particularly, the pathological staging of
cancer is different from the clinical stage in instances that cancer has spread extensively to the
patient's body. Moreover, the pathological staging of cancer aids in giving comprehensive
information used in anticipating treatment response and prognosis. Factors affecting staging of
cancer include grade, cell type, tumor location, and tumor maker levels. For instance, the grade
of cancer cells helps the medical practitioners to measure the abnormality of cancer cells through
. The International Union for Cancer Control (UICC) and the American Joint Committee
on Cancer (AJCC) aids in active safeguarding the TNM classification system, as an instrument
and platform for doctors to stage a significant number of different types of cancer using well-
structured methodologies and standards. The TNM classification system update takes place 6 to
8 years, which fosters a broader understanding of cancer to a patient.
2# Describe at least three complications of cancer, the side effects of treatment, and methods
to lessen physical and psychological effects.

A patient diagnosed with cancer is always at risk of contracting a significant
number of malignancy-related conditions. Cancer complications conditions range from life-
threatening to mild and medical practitioners should assess the complications to hinder
permanent damages. Additionally, oncological cancer complications are classified into structural

and metabolic categories. Examples of structural induced conditions of cancer include cardiac
tamponade, spinal cord compression, and superior vena cava syndrome. The metabolic category
of cancer complications includes hyperkalemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation
(DIC). The assessment and comprehension of cancer complications aid the oncologist in the
provision of emergency and safe care to the patient. Particularly, radiations and chemotherapy
during treatment of cancer lead to Oncological complications to the patient. Cardiac Tamponade
under the structural of emergencies of cancer complications involves the compression of the
cardiac muscle facilitated by the pericardial sac. In this regard, due to cancer, pericardial
constriction leads to pericarditis fosters fluid accumulation.
The compression of the myocardium is fundamental in the reduction of cardiac filling that leads
to a decrease in the blood that flows in ventricles. As a result, the reduction of coronary artery
blood flows facilitates the development of conditions such as myocardial ischemia. According to
Rami-Porta et al., (2015), patients diagnosed with cancer in cardiac tamponade have a higher risk
of developing lung cancer, breast cancer, leukemia, and lymphoma. Side effects of Cardiac
tamponade in a patient include low blood pressure, weakness, and rapid breathing. Disseminated
intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a bleeding cancer disorder, which entails, acquired and
congenital disorders. DIC enhances the alteration in the blood-clotting mechanism that results in
thrombosis. Specifically, this stage of cancer triggers acute promyelocytic leukemia, which
fosters breast, lung, and stomach cancer. On the same aspect of influence, the symptoms
associated with DIC involve the patient's oozing blood from venipuncture sites, needle puncture
sites, and mucous membranes. DIC as a cancer complication leads to intracerebral bleeding that
fosters stroke, headaches, and stroke in patients. The introduction of frozen plasma and platelets
fosters thrombin formation that helps medical practitioners in conducting precautionary measures

to the patient's injury. Methods to lessen the psychological effects of the DIC include the
treatment of the underlying root cause of the stage of cancer. Medical practitioners through the
administering of fresh frozen plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate regulate DIC. On the same of
influence, physical effects to lessen the DIC effects involve bleeding cautions that hinder the
patient from an injury.

Anaphylaxis is a hypersensitivity reaction to the antigen or foreign substances.
Chemotherapy initiates a reaction that releases inflammatory responses and histamine that fosters
cardiovascular collapse and respiratory diseases. Factors that trigger hypersensitivity include
gender, age, protein composition, and heavy metal composition. Notably, hypersensitivity
agents, such as antineoplastic are grouped as moderate risk, low risk, and high risk. Medical
practitioners need to assess and analyze radical essential signs. This assessment aids in
enhancing respiratory and hypotension dysfunctions. A significant number of effects are
associated with hypertension dysfunctions, these effects include, dyspnea, wheezing, urticarial,
agitation and dizziness. Methods to lessen the psychological effects of hypertension concerns by
the medical practitioners include reception antagonists of diphenhydramine and premedication
routine of corticosteroids that aids in distorting the reaction in a patient. Medical practitioners are
mandated to provide oxygen, defibrillator, and intubation supplies to champion the intervention
of anaphylaxis.
3# Discuss what factors contribute to the yearly incidence and mortality rates of cancer
patients in America.

Lack of health insurance by patients contributes a significant number of cancer
cases in America that ultimately, has a ripper effect on mortality rates of cancer patients in

America. Specifically, blacks and Hispanics have a larger number of uninsured cases as
compared to the whites, who have health insurance coverage. That is to say, a significant number
of minority communities have a higher affinity for cancer diagnosis than the majority. Arguably,
minority communities are unable to afford the treatment of cancer at the final stage since the
disease is more costly, extensive and less successful. Arguably, lack of health insurance has
distorted early detection of cancer by the use of mammography, which involves low-dose x-ray
methods aids in early detection of cancer. Consequently, this has championed significant death
cases in America.
A significant number of Americans have a poor diet and lack physical activity that has fostered
cancer incidences in America. Good nutrition has a positive ripper effect on good health.
Unhealthy food choices such as reliance on junk food have enhanced an increase in chronic
diseases such as diabetes and heart diseases. On the same aspect of influence, obesity has led to
several cancers to American citizens such as breast cancers in women, rectum, and colon and
esophagus cancer. Obesity increases cases of cancers through the production and circulation of
insulin and estrogen, which stimulate cancer growth. Arguably, healthy choices among cancer
patients are essential in cancer treatment and physical, social, and economic factors alter the
patient's recovery.

Tobacco smoking has led to negative effects among smokers, which has ultimately,
led to deaths. Tobacco smoking triggers the alteration of various organs such as lungs, blood
vessels and mouth, and bones. Additionally, in America, lung cancer attributes to a significant
number of male and female deaths. On the same aspect of influence, medical practitioners in
America have found that it is hectic to treat lung cancer than any other cancer. Smoking
increases the risk of larynx, pharynx, and kidney cancer. Smoking has led to damages to the

airways of cancer among a significant number of cancer patients, and the lung functionality
continues to deteriorate as an individual smokes.
4. Explain how the American Cancer Society (ACS) might provide education and support.
What ACS services would you recommend and why?

The American Cancer Society offers education and support through the
dissemination of cancer information to the recently diagnosed individuals, individuals going
through treatment and inquiries for loved ones. Besides, the American Cancer Society
frameworks and programs assist patients with moral support and systematic rational decisions on
patient’s health. Through active programs and support groups, patients can air their health
problems for assistance. In this regard, the American Society offers educational programs, which
are accurate in cancer information through research. Consequently, this fosters the patient's
education and comprehension of the side effects of treatment options through 200 languages.
Particularly, the American Cancer Society offers patient services, social services, support groups,
and lodging. I would recommend a support group for it enables patience's acceptance and
recovery of cancer. Support groups assist cancer patients in having a rapport and affiliation with
people going through the same tragedy.
5. Explain how the nursing process is utilized to provide safe and effective care for cancer
patients across the life span. Your explanation should include each of the five phases and
demonstrate the delivery of holistic and patient-focused care
For an effective nursing process, a health care unit must offer platforms to enable systematic
methodology to the analysis of the patient conditions. Registered Nurses offer patient-focused
care and a holistic approach through the assessment, diagnosis, outcomes, implementation, and

evaluation of patient's conditions throughout his life span. Specifically, a registered nurse
establishes a dynamic, systematic method to analyze a patient's medical information. Assessment
of medical records involves analyzing sociocultural, spiritual, and psychological data of the
patient's background. Additionally, registered nurses offer a rational decision on the diagnosis of
the patient based on the receivership of the patient. Diagnosis aids the caregiver to assess a
patient's potential health conditions, the radical course of the pain and the adverse effects
associated with the pain. For instance, an immobilized patient is associated with respiratory
diseases. On the same aspect of influence, outcome, and planning after the analysis of the
diagnosis helps the nurses to make attainable and measurable goals to the patient’s recovery.
Particularly, managing pain and counseling champions resolving conflicts through assessing
patient's outcomes and planning of cancer and outcome. Ultimately, registered nurses offer
implementation of patient care based on the treatment and discharging of the patient.
6. Discuss how undergraduate education in liberal arts and science studies contributes to the
foundation of nursing knowledge and prepares nurses to work with patients utilizing the
nursing process. Consider mathematics, social and physical sciences, and science studies as
an interdisciplinary research area.
Nursing re requires critical thinking, communication, dissemination of information and
problem-solving methodology. Liberal arts contribute to nursing knowledge since it fosters the
nurse's critical thinking and making rational decisions on a patient's health. Mathematics helps
nurses in administering the correct dosage to the patients. A nurse uses a mathematical formula
to calculate the amount of dosage a patient needs. Through the study of science, nurses have a
comprehension of the analysis of human behaviors making them make a rational decision on
patient’s treatment.



Greene, F. L., & Sobin, L. H. (2008). The staging of cancer: a retrospective and prospective
appraisal. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 58(3), 180-190.
Rami-Porta, R., Bolejack, V., Crowley, J., Ball, D., Kim, J., Lyons, G., & Wu, Y. L. (2015). The IASLC lung
cancer staging project: proposals for the revisions of the T descriptors in the forthcoming eighth edition of
the TNM classification for lung cancer. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 10(7), 990-1003