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Discussion 1

It is evident that the unmet need of dental healthcare is rapidly growing in the United States of America. Majority of people affected are adults between the ages of 45 to 64. According to Jones et al. (2013), various empirical studies indicate poor oral health care in the country is caused by low income, race, language, ethnicity, insurance status and type, lack of transportation, provider availability, affordability, and low health literacy level.

Dental public health clinics solve the problem by providing affordable dental care and expanding access to oral health care. This approach is suitable since majority of the people affected either lack income or come from low-income families. However, it does not consider other essential contributing factors, such as transportation, health literacy, insurance, race, and ethnicity. It targets only adult aged between 45 to 64 years, thus leaving out majority of the population who are in a need of affordable and accessible oral healthcare.

To make it more effective and beneficial to all people, the program should be expanded to accommodate children and young people. In addition, it should include region dental health training to increase the level of literacy and awareness. Lastly, there is a need to start countrywide oral and dental health awareness campaigns.

Discussion 2

Malaria is steadily becoming a serious problem in the United States of America due to migration from African countries. Over the past one decade, several cases of malaria have been reported from the African migrant population, especially the Ghanaian community. The 2015 health statics show that the largest percentage of malaria cases originates from the Ghanaian population (Jones, 2012). The malaria prevalence rate increases in the Ghanaian country because of the frequent travel to and from malaria prone areas in West Africa.

Reducing the number of malaria cases starts by first creating awareness of the problem before encouraging individuals to take appropriate actions. The individual needs to be encouraged to precautionary measures when travelling back to Ghana. However, this approached can be improved by providing antimalarial injections or vaccines to all African migrant communities in the United States of amerce.

The researcher should expand the analysis of sociopolitical influence by considering the income level and distribution of the Ghanaian migrant community, accessibility and availability of healthcare in South Bronx. The researcher should also investigate the cultural practices that increase malaria prevalence in the area. The researcher has given insightful consideration of the possible ethical problems.

Discussion 3

Hypertension is one of the greatest health problems in the Belmont Heights Estates area. The community living in this area is mostly American Africans and they have various cultural and social practices that increase the risks of the disease. Therapeutic lifestyle modifications are needed to help the deal with the health issues of hypertension in this area. The success of the program is influenced by a combination of several sociopolitical, cultural, familial, and ethical factors affecting the area.

Given that 38.8% of the residents live below the poverty level, the program should consider a number of sociopolitical factors such as support systems, access to care, living conditions, income, occupation, and education (Weber et al., 2014). Ideally, the program should be designed to offer affordable and accessible therapeutic care because majority of the people living in the area are poor.

The program should also include essential elements, such as health literacy and awareness. This is because most people living in Belmont Heights Estates have false belief about hypertension; they believe that high blood pressure and hypertension are distinct diseases. The awareness and education programs should be aimed at changing their system of beliefs and behaviors in order to gain optimal benefits from the therapeutic lifestyle modifications.



Jones, E., Shi, L., Hayashi, A. S., Sharma, R., Daly, C., & Ngo-Metzger, Q. (2013). Access to oral health care: the role of federally qualified health centers in addressing disparities and expanding access. American journal of public health, 103(3), 488-493.

Jones, L. E. (2012). Malaria in NYC Residents: Examining the determinants of chemoprophylaxis use and adherence among immigrants who travel abroad to visit friends and relatives (VFR). City University of New York.

Weber, M. A., Schiffrin, E. L., White, W. B., Mann, S., Lindholm, L. H., Kenerson, J. G., … & Harrap, S. B. (2014). Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension16(1), 14-26.