The design strategies used when placing patients’ order in the hospitals
One of the design strategies that is vital when making the patients’ order in the hospital includes the use of automated medication dispensing. According to Avery et al. (2012) and Miller and Himelhoch (2013), it is evident that technology-based interventions have served as the best mechanisms in improving medication distribution from manufacturers to end-users (patients) in the hospitals. The strategy has served in reducing medication errors associated with adverse drug reactions. However, the cost of implementation remains a major challenge in various hospitals. Regarding the enhanced entity-relationship (EER) diagram for making patients’ order and the deliveries, the system will control as well as track the dispensing of the drug doses for every patient according to his or her medication profile. Since the design links computer interface terminals from the hospital pharmacy and the dispensing machines at the ward, it gives pharmacists room for making the necessary changes on each new order.
In addition, it calls for the designing an after-hours pharmacy. Many of the hospitals cannot maintain staff in pharmacy department twenty-four hours a day even though there is a continuous need for medication. To obtain proper medication when a pharmacy is closed, the hospital administration should make special arrangement for an on-call pharmacist of a nursing supervisor with the required knowledge to verify the drug prescriptions of the orders made as well to confirm if the needed drugs are in the stock (Di and Kerns, 2015). The design helps in the preservation of the system of checks and the balances of the stock to minimize related errors. Nevertheless, there is a need for conducting prior training to the staff on verification of drug prescription and in choosing the best delivery method of drugs during dispensation.
Course-of-therapy (COT) and repackaging are also design strategies, which should be implemented in pharmaceutical production. The provision of adequate packaging, labeling as well as the control of the final products distributed in the market forms the basic requirements during delivery process of the drugs. Often, repackaging is considered when drugs are purchased in bulk quantities and later repackaged locally. When doing so, a local-language labeling will serve best for verification of the orders delivered within a stipulated time. During delivery, all the orders should entail the product details such as the product number, name and the patients’ identification for a specific drug during delivery.
The possible pitfalls and recommendations
Certain pitfalls may be experienced drug order process, deliveries or dispensing as well as administering that both health centers and pharmaceutical firms should minimize. The drug prescribers should then be familiar with the drug ordering systems and choose the best method that will suit each patient’s need. There could be various methods of delivering drugs but health practitioners must choose the best method to be used after verification of the prescription. The prescribers must also maintain legibility of the written drugs as well as prescription of orders. Individuals with poor handwriting should print prescription order when computerized systems are unavailable. Consequently, pharmacists should ensure that all orders are delivered to the health centers in time or immediately after the receipt of the order using the best delivery methods. The pharmacist should also proper counsel to patients on drug medication as prescribed by the doctor. The process will help patients understand the effectiveness of the drugs as well as to adhere to the prescription given to specific drugs.
Avery, A. J., Rodgers, S., Cantrill, J. A., Armstrong, S., Cresswell, K., Eden, M., … & Prescott, R. J. (2012). A pharmacist-led information technology intervention for medication errors (PINCER): a multicentre, cluster randomised, controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis. The Lancet, 379(9823), 1310-1319.
Di, L., & Kerns, E. H. (2015). Drug-like properties: concepts, structure design and methods from ADME to toxicity optimization. Academic Press.
Miller, C. W., & Himelhoch, S. (2013). Acceptability of mobile phone technology for medication adherence interventions among HIV-positive patients at an urban clinic. AIDS research and treatment, 2013.