Sample Capstone Project Paper on Tile: Vitamin A Deficiency in Children less than five years Indication

Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness and 23% of children with Vitamin A Deficiency have a greater risk of dying due to low immunity. World Health Organization states that it is a public health problem since 33%(190 million) of pre-school-aged children, 15% (19 million) of pregnant women don’t have enough Vitamin A in their daily diet and also adds that 5.2 million pre-schooled children suffer from clinical Vitamin A deficiency. The highest prevalence is in Sub-Saharan countries in Africa and South-East Asia where more than 40% of pre-schooled children are estimated to have Vitamin a deficiency.

World Health Organization also states that vitamin A deficiency is a clinical problem in 45 countries and a sub-clinical problem in 122 countries but it adds that some improvements in the prevalence for wasting and underweight has declined over the past 3 decades although the stunting rate seemed to increase to 35% as measured using the new World Health Organization growth standard of 2006.

Vitamin A deficiency is said to be the major cause of death in children aged less than 5yrs. Daily requirements are compromised as the child grows and also during infections.  This is a direct interpretation of vitamin A deficiency which has been greatly contributed by the lack of awareness by the mothers in terms of food rich in vitamin A and the required proportions i.e. as per the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). This research is conducted with the purpose of determining morbidity patterns of children less than 5yrs as caused by deficiency of Vitamin A, to determine and analyze food  intake among the children under five, and also to determine awareness of mothers on vitamin A importance and what its deficiency can cause as well as their knowledge on vitamin A supplementation

Target Audience

The targeted audience to whom this will be presented delivered to be all mothers. The mothers have been chosen as the target audience since they are the caretakers of the children below five years and they are the ones who play a greater role in maintaining well being of their children as compared to the fathers. Other groups who can also attend the presentation include fathers and young individuals anticipating having children in the near future and those who take care of children aged below five in children’s orphanages. The information will be disseminated by organizing a seminar for mothers in an identified public hospital where the mothers will be invited to attend.

Topic Information to be Shared and Implications

The crucial information which will be shared with the audience will cover topics such as what is vitamin A, the importance of Vitamin A, sources, types of vitamin A deficiency and what cause them, signs of vitamin A deficiency, types of vitamin A supplements, a brief description on the morbidity patterns of children less than five years as caused by vitamin A deficiency and an explanation of recommended daily intakes.

 

What is Vitamin A

Vitamin A refers to a group of natural substances that occur in several forms such as beta-carotene which is the common form, retinoic acid, retinal, and retinol. Retinol is one of the ways in which vitamin A occurs in animal a natural compound made of 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene units and alcohol and it occurs as a colorless liquid which is capable of evaporating if left open to the environment(Michelle and Kathy pg 65-69). Retinol vitamin A is capable of being transformed into other types of vitamin A such as ester compound which exists as a stored type of vitamin A in animals. Beta-carotene is a naturally occurring form of vitamin A in Plants and fruits and it is characterized by the presence of deep red-orange color. Retinal which is known as vitamin A aldehyde is also another form of vitamin A and it is a natural compound of carbon with an attached molecule called chromophore that gives it its color. Retinol is usually attached to a group of a light-sensitive protein receptor called opsin and they act as light receptor cells which bring about vision in animal (Fenna pg454-459).

.           The above information about what vitamin A is will make the audience have a better knowledge of what makes up vitamin A and make them aware that it exists in different forms as well as making them appreciate the information to be given about this vitamin.

Importance of Vitamin A

Vitamin A is of great importance to the body since it promotes several functions such as good eyesight, synthesis of genes in the DNA, boosting of immunity, enhancing good growth of embryos, good bone formation, formation of healthier cells and skin. This information will enable the audience to understand why it is important to include vitamin A in their diet (Wolf pg1647-1652).

.   Vitamin A deficiency

Vitamin A deficiency can be categorized using the major cause for example deficiency as a result of failure to consume a diet with vitamin A is called primary deficiency while deficiency due to altered absorption in the digestive tract is called a secondary deficiency. Primary deficiency occurs in children and grown-ups who fail to take sufficient diets rich in Vitamin A such as carrots, fruits like mangoes and vegetables, or animal sources such as milk and liver. Children who stop being breastfed early are also at high risk of getting Vitamin A deficiency. On the other hand, secondary vitamin A deficiency develops as a result of digestive tract disorders that cause poor absorption of the prevailing vitamins in the food. Vitamin A only dissolves in fat and this implies that a diet that contains minimal fat will prevent effective absorption of vitamin A (Wolf pg1652).

Insufficient or reduced amount of minerals such as Zinc also affects absorption and assimilation of vitamin A and also other factors such as unbalanced bile production, continuous exposure to smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol can also affect how vitamin A is absorbed. This information on vitamin A deficiency types will give the audience an insight into what brings about the condition of vitamin A being insufficient to the body and also the risk factors that can lead to the vitamin A deficiency.

Symptoms of Vitamin A Deficiency

Insufficient amounts of vitamin A in the body can be identified by the development of signs such as poor eyesight, drying of the eyes, low immunity which makes the body easily affected by infection, development of whitish lumps in hair roots, and epithelium layer which is thickened (Michelle and Kathy pg 68). This information will enable the audience to acquire knowledge that can help them predict if one has vitamin A deficiency.

Sources of Vitamin A

Vitamin A can either be obtained from plants or animal products. It should be noted that it is only about 5% of vitamin A from plants is absorbed in the body whereas 95% of vitamin A from animal sources is absorbed and thus vitamin sources of animal origin are recommended (Qin, Russell and Grusak pg 821–826).

The table below summarizes the various sources of Vitamin A

 

Plant sources Animal sources
Spinach Cod liver oil
Kales Liver
Carrots Butter
Broccoli Cheddar cheese
Sweet potato Egg
Pumpkin Milk
Collard green  
Cantaloupe melon  
Apricot fruits  
Pawpaw  
Mango  
Pea  
Tomatoes  
Seaweed  

 

The information on the source of vitamin A will make the audience know the locally available sources that provide vitamin A and also given them a knowledge of which source to choose from depending on their preferences.

Vitamin A Supplements

Ways of improving vitamin A intake include dietary consumption while at the same time breastfeeding infants and by administering available forms of vitamin A through the mouth. Researches that have been conducted show that improved ways of vitamin A intake in children of age less than five years are at a reduced risk of being affected by this deficiency. The organization of world health states that supplementing vitamin A in the diets of children less than five years has given positive results by reducing the number of death in children aged less than five years (Michelle and Kathy pg 69).

 

Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin A for children below five years

The following table summarizes appropriate daily vitamin A intake for children under five (Michelle and Kathy pg 69).

.

Stage Group Required intake/day(micrograms/day) Maximum intake limits
0-6 months 400 600
7-12 months 500 600
1-3 years 300 600
4-5years 400 900

 

This information will give the audience adequate information on the number of vitamins required by their children less than five years depending on which age group they fall into.

Brief description of the morbidity patterns of children less than 5 years

Vitamin A deficiency is a common health problem that affects about one-third of children less than five years and this makes it an area of concern since this deficiency leads to the blindness of about 250,000–500,000 children every year in developing countries as it has been found out by the World Health Organization records. Due to this critical danger of vitamin A deficiency, mothers are encouraged to breastfeed their babies exclusively for the first six months, providing vitamin A supplements to children under five years is also necessary as well as incorporating vitamin A supplements in foodstuffs being fed to the children below 5 years ( Giannini and Gilliland pp 182–183).

This information makes the audience perceive how critical the issue of vitamin A deficiency in children aged below five years is and this makes them cautious and responsible for the feeding habits of their children aged below five years.

 

Outcome and Content

 

Outcomes Content
  1. At the end of the presentation, the audience will be able to tell the importance of vitamin A

 

·    Importance of vitamin A

·   Signs and symptoms of vitamin A deficiency

  1. At the end of the presentation, the audience will be able to recite several sources of vitamin A
·   Plant and animal source of vitamin A
  1. In 3weeks time, the audience should have identified the appropriate feeding diet and habit for their children aged less than five years
·   Recommended daily intake of vitamin A for children less than five years

·   Morbidity patterns of children less than five years

 

Assignment Two

Capstone Project – Project Structure

The structure of the project will include a brief pointing out of expected outcomes, the content will point out where each outcome information will be found in the reviewed literature topics, strategies for evaluation, and information of how time will be managed will be available in the structure. The expected outcomes anticipated to have been achieved after the end of the presentation are: the audience should be in a position to mention some or all of the importance of vitamin A in the body and also be able to tell signs that can make to be said have vitamin A deficiency. The second expected outcome is that the audience should also be in a position to list several sources of vitamin A from both plant and animal sources and the third expected outcome is a difference on improved feeding patterns diets for children aged less than five years should be observed.

The content which will be used to explain information will be from the literature review of identified topics of importance to be discussed during the presentation. On the other hand, strategies which will be used will differ depending on the topic information being delivered but generally, the strategies used will include the use of powerpoint presentation while at the same time explaining the points in the PowerPoint slides verbally, pictures, graphs, and tables will also be used to illustrate certain information for better understanding. The time that will be used in explaining of each content will vary depending on the extent to which the content being discussed is of importance. Evaluation to determine whether the presentation had valid and applied outcomes will be done by performing a post-test after the presentation by asking the audience question and also follow-up telephone audit will be used to determine whether the presentation gave an evident applicable outcome.

 

Title of Presentation:  Vitamin A Deficiency in Children less than five years

Audience/Setting:  A seminar will be organized to disseminate the information to mothers

Outcomes Content Strategies Time Evaluation
  1. At the end of the presentation, the audience will be able to tell the importance of vitamin A

 

·           Importance of vitamin A

1.Fenna, Owen.Food Chemistry.CRC Press.Taylor.2008print.pg454-459

2.Tanumihardjo, SA. Journal of Clinical Nutrition.Vol.94.Number2.2011 print pg658-665

3.Wolf, A.Glen. The Discovery of Visual Function of Vitamin A.Journal of Nutrition.Vol131.Number 6.2011print.pg1647-1652

 

·         Signs and symptoms of vitamin A deficiency

1.Borel P, Drai J, Faure H,Fayol V, Galabert C, Laromiguière M, Le Moël .Recent knowledge about intestinal absorption and cleavage of carotenoids Journal.Vol 63.Number 2. 2005 print.pg165–77.

2. Holmes, Moore. Journal of Experimental production of vitamin A in Laboratory Animals. Vol 5.pg 239–250.

3. Health Organization of World, Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk of vitamin A deficiency. 1995–2005.

Powerpoint and verbal explanation of slides and brochures 15 minute Post-test at the end  of the presentation where the audience will be asked questions and comments
2.      At the end of presentation, the audience will be able to recite several sources of vitamin A ·         Plant and animal source of vitamin A

1.      Michelle A. and  Kathy A. Nutritional Health Sciences Belmont, CA,Thomson. 2007print.pg 65-69

2.Stipanuk, Martha Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition (2nd ed.).Philadelphia..2006

printpg175-180.

3.Tang G, Qin J, Dolnikowski G,  Clinical Nutrition Journal of America Vol 82 Number4. 2005print. Pg 811-820.

 

Power point  and verbal presentation and illustrating using pictures 15minutes Post-test at the end of presentation by asking audience questions
3.      In 3weeks time, the audience should have identified the appropriate feeding diet and habit for their children aged less than five years ·             Recommended daily intake of vitamin A for children less than five years

Combs, Gerald F. Vitamins Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health (3rd ed.) Academic Press. Burlington. 2008print.pg89-91

Fenna,Owen.Food Chemistry.CRC Press.Taylor.2008print.pg457

Tanumihardjo, SA. Journal of Clinical Nutrition.Vol.94.Number2.2011 print pg656-657

 

 

 

·         Morbidity patterns of children less than five years

1.AJ Giannini, RL Gilliland. Handbook of Neurologic Disorders. Hyde Park publisher, New York. 1982, pp. 172–183.

2.  Forsmo S, Fjeldbo SK, Langhammer A. Journal of Epidemiology vol167 .number4.pg 406–411.

3 Michelle, A and, Kathy A. Sciences of Nutrition Belmont, CA, Thomson. 2007print.pg 69

 

 

PowerPoint  and verbal explanation of slides in  and demonstrating using tables and graphs 10minutes Follow up-telephone audit
Assignment 3
Presentation and Evaluation

The research work will be presented to the mothers who will be invited to attend the seminar in the identified public hospital. Various methods will be used to evaluate whether the presentation was effective. The various ways and tools that will be used during evaluation include the use of questionnaires, the headcount of those who have understood and those who have not understood the topics discussed during the presentation and also the degree of understanding scale will be used as a tool during the evaluation

Evaluation Tools: Sample questionnaires

Social demographic

  1. Provide name details………….
  2. Provide dates of birth ………….

3.1 family sizes

  1. 1-3
  2. 4-6
  3. 7-9
  4. >10
    • number of children below 5 years
  5. 1-3
  6. 4-6
  7. >7
  8. Marital status
  9. Single
  10. Married
  11. Divorced
  12. Widowed
  13. Occupation
  14. Business
  15. Casual
  16. Formal
  17. Others…………….specify
Vitamin A Topics information evaluation
  1. Mention at least 5 sources of vitamin A both plant and animal sources
  2. Explain the different ways in which vitamin A is useful to the body as learning
  3. Explain briefly how you can determine that a child below five years is deficient in vitamin A

Degree understanding Scale as an evaluation tool

Please tick one of the options below depending on how you felt about the presentation

  • Like Extremely
  • Like Very Much
  • Like Moderately
  • Like Slightly
  • Neither Like nor Dislike
  • Dislike Slightly
  • Dislike Moderately
  • Dislike Very Much
  • Dislike Extremely
Reviewed peer articles discussing evidence-based nursing practice on Vitamin A Deficiency.

The reviewed evidence-based nursing practice articles states that the human body requires vitamin A in order to function well and that an insufficient supply of vitamin A to the body can lead to the development of serious dangerous conditions especially in children aged less than five years. The reviewed peer articles also articulate that presence of insufficient vitamins in the body can be a result of several factors among them being reduced dietary consumption of vitamin A, indulging in excessive intake of alcohol, and altered absorption of vitamin A due to the presence of digestive tract disorders. The evidence-based nursing practice articles also indicate that the type of vitamin A deficiency and the seriousness of the signs and symptoms will prevail differently in different individuals depending on the vitamin A amounts available in the body.

The articles indicate that in some cases misdiagnosis of vitamin A deficiency occurs although it is rare and it happens when there are medical mistakes from the medical practitioner, nursing workers, management of the hospital, pharmacists, or laboratory staff (Tanumihardjo pg664). The review indicates that vitamin A deficiency has been an area of concern in the world not only for its importance in good vision but also immunity-boosting in humans. Deficiency of vitamin A in children aged below five years has been an area of concern since the World Health Organization has indicated that it is one of the conditions leading to the high prevalence of death in children below five years of age. This implies that the public should be made aware of the importance of vitamin A in the diet. Vitamin A deficiency is treated by being administered through the mouth or by use of a syringe to inject and it has been identified that the oral mode of administration of vitamin A is more effective as to when it is administered through injection and thus it is the recommended mode especially where the child affected has excessive diarrhea. It is also that a lot of research has proved that the provision of supplements of vitamin A to children aged below five years reduces the children mortality rate by a percentage of twenty-three. In nations where vitamin A deficiency occurs in high prevalence, the supplement is provided in form of capsules and is administered together with polio and measles vaccines (Forsmo and Langhammer pg 406–411).

Work Cited

AJ Giannini, RL Gilliland. The Handbook of Neurologic, Neurogenic and Neuropsychiatric Disorders. Wiley Publishers. NewYork., 1982, pp. 182–183.

Combs, Gerald F.The Vitamin. Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health (3rd ed.) Academic Press. Burlington. 2008print.pg89-91

Fenna,Owen.Food Chemistry.CRC Press.Taylor.2008print.pg454-459

Forsmo S, Fjeldbo SK, Langhammer A. American Journal of Epidemiology vol167 .number4.pg 406–411.

Holmes, Moore. Journal of Experimental production of vitamin A in Laboratory Animals. Vol 5.pg 239–250.

Michelle, A and, Kathy A. Sciences of Nutrition Belmont, CA, Thomson. 2007print.pg 69

Stipanuk, Martha H. Molecular Aspects of Human Nutrition (2nd ed.).Philadelphia..2006printpg175-180.

Tanumihardjo, SA. Journal of Clinical Nutrition.Vol.94.Number2.2011 print pg656-657

Tang G, Qin J, Dolnikowski GG, Russell RM, Grusak MA . The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol 82 Number4. 2005print. pg 821–828.

Kroll, B.J. Evaluating rating scales for sensory testing with children. Food Technology journal vol, 44 .Number 11pp, 78-86.