Sample Article Review Paper on Decision Making

The concept of decision-making implies that there is availability of a considerable amount of information, which an individual can synthesize, analyze and evaluate before making the best decision based on available data. However, the decision-making process in an organization occurs at different levels of complexity, and at each of these levels, the nature of the information available to the decision-maker varies considerably from the copious and detailed to the scant and aggregated. In an organizational setting, decisions are made at operational, control and strategic levels with the information available for a decision maker at the operational level being copious and nearly complete while at the strategic level, available information is aggregated and scant although decisions made at the strategic level have the highest impact in the management of the organization. Therefore, decision-makers, especially at the strategic level need decision support systems that can help them to make sense of the available data, enabling them to make the best decisions for the organization. Decision support systems are some of the tools that have been used to enable managers make the best decision through the use of computers and information and communication technologies (ICT), which help to analyze information and use models to come up with possible scenarios. The rapid growth in ICT has made it possible for computers to be mainstreamed in the decision making process with their increasing computational powers making it possible for computers to solve complex semi-structured tasks.

Despite the relative success of decision support systems (DSS) in helping managers make decisions, modern organizational decision making often involves a number of individuals who may not work in the same place or even at the same time, but who work together towards making a common decision. This decision-making process is asynchronous in nature, is called distributed decision making (DDM), and has been enabled by the emergence of communication technologies that enable people to keep in touch instantaneously as well as to post their contributions to the decision making process from virtually any place on the earth. DDM can be applied in clinical settings in the management of patients and in the adoption of cutting edge patient management practices. With the use of high capacity broadband, it is possible to contact experts in a given field and ask them to contribute to the best procedures that can be used to manage a case. ICT has now made it possible to send raw data obtained from machine diagnostics to specialists in different parts of the world who can study the data and make inferences on what could be ailing a patient as well as suggest the best intervention measures. Analysis of expert advice can help the caregivers on the ground to choose the best intervention measure for the patient.

A decision support system for an extended enterprise must have excellent connectivity between the different components of the system which work cooperatively in the decision-making process to ensure that information moves quickly and efficiently between the components. The enterprise should have an open culture that allows different participants to input into the decision-making process as well as have systems that ensure that individual contributions to the process are incorporated into the final decision made. In an integrated decision making support system for clinical functions, the system data base will include the diagnostic data obtained from interviews as well as laboratory tests. The knowledge base is formed by the experts that are in the system as well as the published research data. The model base for the enterprise shall be based on the theoretical constructs that have been used to guide practice within the clinical environment.