Sample Case Studies Paper on Policy Challenges in Modern Health Care


What is the difference between civil law and criminal law? Do any cases constitute both? Give example.

Civil law addresses civil cases lodged by private individuals or corporations when seeking to collect monetary compensations to cover for damages. On the other hand, lawyers opines that criminal laws address criminal cases brought forwarded by local governments or state in order to address suspected violations, in most cases they seek fine or jail sentences (Gardner and Anderson, 2012). Notably, the difference between the above is focused on what the laws seek to achieve or pursue. As pointed out, civil laws compel individual or corporations for compensation, the offender suffers so much harm that can be comparable to making good the wrong done. On the contrary, criminal laws are useful in ensuring that wrong doers are punished; this is aimed at discouraging future crimes. It has been ascertained that some cases may constitute both especially in situations where negligence leads to burglary or assault (Gardner and Anderson, 2012). For example, when a medical practitioner through negligence or deliberately leaves an office door open to facilitate robbery of medical supplies.

 Explain what is meant by organizational behavior.

Organization behavior is a collection of activities encompassing conduct of employees that may affect job performance, worker interaction, commitment to job duties and provision of leadership in an organization. Due to the fact that employees come from different cultural and religious background, they tend to behave differently while in work environments. For example, there are employees who according to religious beliefs may not attend work functions on worship prescribed days. It is an area that has been studied as researchers try to find ways of improving organizational performance and employee productivity.

What barriers do healthcare providers and organizations face when attempting to improve care?

Healthcare providers and organization face several barriers as they try to improve care and service provision. Studies have confirmed that this has greatly eroded service and care provision because of the perception that most providers and organizations are mainly concerned with profits (Mechanic, 2004). Consequently, it has been established that providers are expected to account for medical costs which they do not control; this has affected staff morale and thus hindering improvement in service delivery (Mechanic, 2004).  Moreover, medical service providers are mostly compensated based on volume and not the value that they add in the medical sector through improved care and service delivery. Studies have established other barriers to include, lack of patient engagement, inadequate measures to ensure quality service provision, lack of alignment among industry players and lack of information to settle payment amounts (Mechanic, 2004).

Describe the initial uses of computers in health care and the evolution of information technology (IT).

Computers in health care were the main driving forces that influenced healthcare and resulted to information technology innovation in the sector. It has been established that during the 1960s computers mere majorly used to store large and expensive data (Shortliffe and Cimino, 2006). Later in the 1970s computers were greatly important in the healthcare sector as they played critical roles in necessitating communication within departments. Consequently, computers enabled hospitals to operate both clinical and financial systems through diverse and widespread software applications. Currently, it has been opined that computers are useful and have become integral parts of medical industry because they have enabled access to broad, distributed computing systems and robust networks (Shortliffe and Cimino, 2006).  It is avowed that his has necessitated improvement in service delivery and also ensure quick and real-time decision making (Shortliffe and Cimino, 2006).

Describe why human resource management is comprised of strategic and administrative actions.

Human resource professionals consider employees as vital assets in organizations; this is the reason why human resource management must integrate strategic and administrative actions (Wilton, 2013). This is aimed at achieving competitive advantage and realization of strategic plans whether short or long term. In order to ensure productivity, senior management must formulate administrative measures and strategic plans which are then transformed by human capital in the organization.




Gardner, T. J., & Anderson, T. M. (2012). Criminal law. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage


Mechanic, D. (2004). Policy challenges in modern health care. New Brunswick, NJ [u.a.:

Rutgers Univ. Press.

Shortliffe, E. H., & Cimino, J. J. (2006). Biomedical Informatics: Computer Applications in

            Health Care and Biomedicine. New York, NY: Springer Science Business Media, LLC.

Wilton, N. (2013). An introduction to human resource management. London: SAGE.