The World Bank in a number of instances has provided vital data integral in the adoption of key national and international policies. Data regarding the various composition aspects of nations has in most cases helped in coming up with national population policies. For example, determination of growth rate in countries has been instrumental in carrying out an array of expansion of sectors in order to accommodate the ever growing populations. Policies such as education plans, health policies and social facets strongly rely on the provided population data by various sectors. In accordance with existing population data, the paper will attempt to explicate vital aspects of this population that affects the enactment of policies in specific countries.
The following data represents the five highly populated countries in 2013
India 1, 252, 140
United States 316, 129
Indonesia 249, 866
Brazil 200, 632
According to research carried out in 2010 in the United States, Africa leads in fast growing population. The high population growth has resulted to challenges the continent strives to address. Initially, the high population growth in the region resulted into high poverty levels owing to constraint in resources. In Nigeria, for example, amenities such as education institutions are over populated resulting into constant development of new amenities to accommodate the high increasing population (Bank, 2012, 223). The high population in a number of African countries has also resulted into increased social crimes and diseases. HIV/ AIDS epidemic is widely manifested in the continent owing to the large population living in poverty and lack of education. Among the developed countries, China has the highest population growth rate (Bank, 2012, 67). As a result, Chinese government has designed policies to curb the high population growth rate. Among them is industrial partnership with undeveloped countries that has seen Chinese personnel imported to assist in industrial operation in some developing countries.
Recent statistics by the World Bank dated 2013 shows the following top countries leading in high population growth rate.
Country population growth rate %
Burkina Faso 3.05
Relationship between Life Expectancy and Population Growth
Life expectancy refers to the average age that will be attained by individuals of a specific region, in most cases countries. On the other hand, population growth refers to the levels in which the size of a given population increases. There is a close connection between life expectancy and the resulting population. In most instances, it can be highlighted that there is a direct correlation between the two components. In the event that a country is experiencing early deaths, the overall growth rate will be compromised as most individuals will pass on before attaining reproductive age. However, in the event that a country is experiencing high life expectancy, say, 80, there will be high growth rate, taking into consideration that a majority of the population have attained child-bearing and productive age (Hamm, Seitz & Werding, 2008, 765). Nevertheless, these aspects greatly depend on the fertility of the population. A country will only manifest high growth rate if the population has high fertility.
German Population Growth
Germany is rated first in terms of population size and growth rate in Europe. Globally, the country is rated 16th in terms of growth rate. It is worth noting that the population of the country constitutes mostly the aged population, which manifests in high age expectancy (Chandrasekhar, 1946, 89). Owing to the high composition of the aging population, the country experiences declining growth, which has negative effects in the country’s future population. Additionally, the fertility of the country is lowly placed at 1.4. This manifests the correlation between fertility levels and the resulting population growth. As a result of the low youthful fertile population, the government of the country has enacted immigration policies that encourage settlement of immigrants in the country in order to aid in boosting the birth rates. In line with this, the latest immigrant statistics reveals that 16 million of the country’s population is composed of immigrants (Bank, 2012, 220).
The projected 2016 statistics of the country show that the number of death cases will exceed the number of live births by 209 404, which will highly compromise the country’s population.
Population in India
India is rated as the second most populous country in the world after China with a population of 1.27 billion. The population of the country constitutes a larger percentage of the youths, who are highly fertile. Projected statistics of the country’s population reveals that by 2020, the average age of the population of the country will be 29 years (Hamm, Seitz & Werding, 2008, 90). 50% of the country’s population is below 25 years while 65% are below 35 years. The country enjoys an average fertility rate of 4.1 – 5.5. As a result of the favorable fertility rates, the total population of the country exceeds that of Africa continent by approximately 200 million people. The high fertility of the country is generally the reason for the high population (Coale, Demeny & Vaughan, 2013, 231).
The graph below shows the estimated composition of India’s population
The One – Child Policy
Unlike China, India has not adopted the one – child policy that targets to control the birth rates of the citizens. In China, the one- child policy applies for person above the age of 30. The policy has helped China to regulate its population in order to meet the capacity of the available resources. However, India has not taken into consideration this policy owing to the low average age levels of the citizens. In addition, the country is also endowed with adequate resources, which has aided in supporting the high population over the years (United States, 2010, 965).
Relationship between Fertility and Mortality Rates
Fertility refers to the ability and the sequence at which an individual can bear children. Women experience fertility levels from early teens to mid –forties. On the other hand, male counterparts are believed to exhibit fertility in their entire adulthood. Fertility levels can be compromised among individuals and will often vary from one individual to the other. Mortality rate on the other hand refers to the frequency at which deaths are experienced, mortality rates can be grouped into infant mortality, and maternal mortality amongst others (Chandrasekhar, 1946, 43). Early mortality rates in a country will affect the overall resulting average fertility levels owing to the demise of the youthful fertile generation. Developing countries are mostly affected by high number of maternal mortalities that to a greater extent has compromised the fertility of the countries. Scientific research reveals connection between psychological conditions and the fertility levels. This is viewed to be the cause of low fertility in the event of infant mortalities.
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Hamm, I., Seitz, H., & Werding, M. 2008.Demographic change in Germany: The economic and fiscal consequences. New York: Springer.
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