Sample Paper on what was New?


Over the years, the volume in various sciences including geography and biology has increased exponentially. The emergence of new research methods ensured that living things were classified using a more inclusive method which focused on their unique traits and differences. The invention of computers and development of libraries ensured that scientists were able to store and retrieve large volumes of information faster. Scientists such as Humboldt, Ritter and Kant using the increasing body of knowledge came up with a logical system for categorizing curriculum. These categories included physical sciences which also had distinct fields including seismology, hydrology and astrology. These specialized fields were based scientific efforts of various scientists including Ptolemy, Copernicus, Albert Einstein and Antoine Laurent who proposed theories and research methods to better understand the earth. Biological sciences contributed to by the likes of Charles Darwin, social sciences and history were also categories of the new logical system. Geography, as a specialized was also transformed with the new methodologies and theories. The field focused on information collection, concept formulation and specialized studies of identified areas. This thrust cartographers and climatologists including Humboldt, Heinrich Berghaus, Matthew Fontaine Maury and Daniel Coit Gilman into the limelight. The new scientific movement led to more scientific expeditions across the globe as scientists sought to understand the earth better.

Opinion on the reading

The reading provided an important insight into the historical development of scientific knowledge over the centuries. It highlighted the scientific contributions of various scientists towards the scientific movement. That is, it their contributions in the development of theories and research methodologies that have spurred scientific development. These are the scientists who have played a key role in adding new ideas in various fields including geography. The article also highlighted the importance of information gathering and storage especially through libraries and computer based technologies. The backbone of scientific development, the addition of new information and ideas, is the ability to store and retrieve the already collected ideas and information. Therefore, as the knowledge base expanded exponentially over time, the need to store and retrieve them arose. Scientists were therefore able to develop their knowledge base and make inferences and references to already existing information. This also ensured consistency in the scientific information being published as the libraries and computers promoted information sharing among scientists despite their geographical locals. In addition, the article also showed that scientific knowledge development was not a localized phenomenon. Knowledge development originated from different regions around the world; from Germany to France, England and the United States.

The reading is very objective in its coverage of the various issues it tackled. It is well detailed and seamlessly transitions from various topics. I agree with its assertion that there are new ideas that have been added to the field of geography by the various scientists. Over the centuries, scientists have added new ideas including scientific methodologies and theories to various fields including geography.

Questions and thoughts

However, while the article has given background and historical information of these developments, the article fails to answer the question of the current status of geography. What are the current new ideologies and methodologies in the field of geography? Who are the main contributors to these new ideologies and methodologies in this field? In addition, it is well documented that there were contradicting approaches and theories amongst scientists in various fields. This article has not touched on any of these controversies.