Sample Essay on Geographical and Economic Development


One of the areas in which one can measure the economic strength of a country is through the scrutiny into the various facets of economic developments that the country depicts over the years. The financial endowment of a country will only be revealed through the measurement of how the country gets the maximum gain from the economic resources in question.  There are countries that source raw materials from various countries and use them to build a finished product that they later sell to the countries that gave the raw materials.  In this scenario, the countries from which the raw materials are derived are said to be periphery while those that take the raw materials are deemed to be core countries (Tan, 2007). Core countries have well-established economies which they use in amassing wealth as and when the opportunity arises. The core/periphery is seen to be the mediator between the center and the periphery.  This discussion looks into the development status of two distinct countries (Malaysia and Indonesia) by investigating their economic situation and the realm to which they belong in the business cycle.

Core/periphery status

Malaysia is a semi-periphery country. This is because the country is very rich in the production and mining of petroleum products. The country also has timber and gold.  On the global scene, the country always imports labor from the periphery countries like Bangladesh, which they exploit their labor. It is also seen that if this country produces petroleum, they sell these products to the core countries.  The core countries mentioned here that trade with Malaysia is Japan and Europe.  After refining the petroleum, these core countries come to sell these products to this periphery and semi-periphery countries. Indonesia, on the other hand, has a high level of productivity regarding its economic stance. It is also endowed with various financial resources which such as petroleum, textile, natural gas, automotive, and electrical appliances industry (Anderson, 2006).  It should be noted that as they import various stakeholders to come and work in these fields, they are also exploited just like Malaysia by the core countries who take these raw materials and make their refined products. The core countries like China and Japan then come and sell these finished products to Indonesia and other periphery countries. In both two nations, there is a high level of corruption which has resulted in the disparity in the income distribution in the two nations. In Malaysia, unemployment rates are high, and this has been attributed to the unequal distribution of economic various resources across the country (Tan, 2007). Additionally, the current government has a centralized system of government which does not enhance the regional integration of financial resources making some of the parts of this country to be peripheral in nature.  In Indonesia, there are regions that are prone to wear such as the Papua region hence there is less economic activity going on here.  The income disparities coupled with a high level of dependency ratio are signs that some of the regions here are peripheral in economic terms.

The relationships between core/periphery and the urbanization patterns

Three distinct areas in Malaysia have a high economic stance regarding the distribution of resources.  These areas are the areas where the petroleum products are being mined, the timber harvesting areas, and the areas where the gold mining is taking place.  As it stands historically, these three areas go along why regarding the urbanization and the provision of various basic needs to the inhabitants here.  The fact that these areas are economically stable makes them have a higher stance of population density.  The high population density in these areas has brought in the advent of cheap labor to these cities. The fact that there are economic resources in these areas has made the geographical shift from the areas less economically viable to these regions which financially endowed (Tan, 2007).  To this end, it is imperative to note that the spatial distribution of the resources in Malaysia has done some parts to be core-periphery while some parts remain periphery.  This spatial distribution is caused by the high level of disparity in the income distribution in different regions of the countries. On the account of Indonesia, some parts of the country are not economically viable. Some of the reasons why they are not profitable are because of frequent wars, there are also fewer economic resources to be exploited, and also there is less government concern in such areas.  These areas now become a slave of the economically endowed areas which have what it takes to be profitable.  The labor now shifts from these periphery areas to the core areas which are economically endowed (Smalley, 2014).

The relationship between core/periphery and natural resources

Is evident that in Malaysia,  the areas which are well endowed with minerals and natural resources form the core/periphery while those areas which are less endowed with these natural resources form the periphery areas.  For example, for areas with oil fields in Malaysia, there is a high economic activity going here.  The natural resource being exploited here has brought in much employment to the persons around these areas.  Additionally, the advent of a high population is seen in these sectors because the people are migrating to these areas in search of employment and to better their lives.  These sectors that are endowed with natural resources, therefore, get the cheap supply of labor from the less economically endowed areas, and this brings on board the advent of high poverty levels in the periphery areas of this country (Anderson, 2006).  Indonesia, on the other hand, has areas where there are oil fields, natural gas fields, the sectors that have a high agricultural economic endowment.  Most persons tend to move to these areas in such for some source of income in order to better their living.  In so doing, the areas get to be the core areas which now exploit the periphery areas regarding labor acquisition and the selling of the finished products from the core/periphery areas (Smalley, 2014).

Government type and core/periphery relations

The Malaysian government is that of a federal constitutional elective monarchy.  Democracy prevails here where the legislative decisions are being made by the congressional officials who are elected by the state.  These people are charged with the responsibility of making informed choices on behalf of the people who elected them.  On the other hand, the Indonesian government consists of a democratic government that has a tenured term in the office of 5 years.  Again the members of parliament are charged with the responsibility for making decisions on behalf of the public (Tan, 2007).  The current government policy on employment opportunities is that citizens deserve equitable employment opportunities.  This system has seen most people move into the urbanized areas in search of jobs.  The policy on equitable distribution of economic resources has not been met yet.  One of the predicaments that have befallen this kind of system is the high level of corruption in these two countries.  This notion has led to some areas being marginalized and not taken into consideration regarding equitable distribution of resources.  Due to this reason, these areas become periphery to the urban areas where the economic resources are concentrated. Democracy is also revealed in the provision of education where the policy connotes that every child has a right to education. This notion has led to the distribution of the schools in both two countries in the most equitable manner.  One of the strikes back that is seen in this education system is that most of the books used by these students are those that are being imported from the core countries.  The global position of being either periphery or core-periphery makes the country lose a lot regarding paying for the imported items instead of just making these publications.  It is now the duty of the governments of these countries to ensure that they encourage scholars to publish their books to help cut down on the cost of imports (Smalley, 2014).

Future trends and conclusion

On the account of Malaysia, the country is deemed to transform from being core-periphery to core country.  This can be made possible through the construction of various factories that help in refining petroleum products and reduce the costs of refining them outside the country (Smalley, 2014).  This move will also contribute to boosting the employment levels thus increasing the income status of the country.  The country should also be keen on making sure that it improves its textile industry to stop importing textile products.  Shortly Malaysia will be a core country if it ends corruption in various government arms which may help it to save a lot regarding revenue collection and the equitable distribution of economic resources (Anderson, 2006).  On the other hand, Indonesia still has a long way to go concerning transforming into a developed core country.  This notion is because there is still high poverty levels in this country than that in Malaysia. The country is well endowed with natural resources, but the risk of the depletion of the resources such as petroleum and natural gas is quite high making the whole advent of economic growth slow soon.  Additionally, the current government system is quite centralized, and this makes the equitable distribution of resources tough.

Question Two: Diversity and National Unity


In contemporary society, the system of government and the social, economic background of a country depict how strong the country is regarding economic and political governance. In the analysis of any state, it is important to look into the various areas the social, ethnic, political-religious, and linguistic diversity to discern the strength of any country in all aspects (Bulmer, & University of Papua New Guinea. 2009). This discussion gives an incisive look into the real advent of analysis of the countries China and Philippines, giving an incisive look into their economic stances in the global scene. We would also look at the variety of comparisons between these two countries to know the various type and extent of diversity seen in each country.

Diversity of the populations

China is seen to be the second-largest country geographically and has the highest number of ethnic groups across the world. The total number of the ethnic groups totals 56 with the leading group being the Han Chinese.  The Han Chinese group forms 91.51% of the whole population of China making it the target ethnic group globally (Xu, 2012). The ethnic minority groups now account for only 8.49% of the whole population.  The people of China currently stand at over 1.3 billion.  The Chinese government recognizes 292 languages in the country. This merely shows that regarding culture, there is a high sense of diversity since each language connotes a differently distinct culture (Bjener,, 2005).  To this end, it is also imperative to note that the most spoken language is the branch of sanity language found in the sin-Tibetan language.  This language contains Mandarin, which is spoken by 70% of the population of the natives.  There also various small group languages which mean that the language diversity is quite full.  On the account of religion, this country has more focus on the traditional religion called Taoism (Bulmer, & University of Papua New Guinea. 2009).  This comprises the worship of the shen which is God’s nature. Additionally, this traditional worship accounts for 87.4% of the population.  The next religion is Buddhism, which stands at 6.2%.  Christianity takes 2.3% while Islam and other faiths account for 1.9% of the population.  The diversification of the religious stances that these people show that they are too much into their culture which they have held from time immemorial. The culture of the Chinese is mostly based and influenced by Confucianism, which talks about abiding by the rule of nature and what nature gives them (Xu, 2012).


On the other hand, the Philippines country has eight distinct ethnic groups with the leading ethnic group being Tagalong with a percentage of 28.1%.  This group is followed by other groups such as the Bisaya, the Cebuano, the Locarno Hiligaynon, and waray among others.  The diversity regarding the ethnic groups is brought about by the fact that this country is made of over 7000 islands. The country has total square kilometers of about 300,000, and this makes it the 73rd largest country in the world. The official language is the Filipino and English. There are also the eight major dialects that emanate from the eight ethnic groups.  Again the most prevalent religion in this country is Catholic which accounts for 82.9% of the population. Muslim accounts for 5%, the evangelical accounts for 2.8%, Christian accounts for 4.5% while the rest accounts for 6%.  This diversity in the religious stances has given much freedom of worship to various persons across the country. The population of this country is roughly 100 million people as of July 2015.  This figure is far much less than that of China which stands at 1.3 billion. Again on the account of population, the dependency ratio here stands at 57.6%. This dependency ratio is quite higher than that of China which stands at 36.6%.

The spatial distributions

The physical shape and the size of the population of China have made the competition for the resources to be quite high.  With the strongest people in the world of over 1.3 billion people, the country has tried to utilize its resources appropriately to serve its humanity with the main of reducing the dependency ratio to a reasonable stance.  The fact that China forms the largest country regarding borders with other nations makes it get access to many countries which makes it have a high interaction stance to other countries (Bjener,, 2005). On the other hand, the Philippines is surrounded by many water boundaries because it is a conglomerate of many islands.  The fact that the country is surrounded by oceans makes them have varied types of ethnic groups that are well diversified.  The numerous religious groups also emanate from the fact that the country is a conglomerate of islands and would be evaded by various people from varied beliefs (Bulmer, & University of Papua New Guinea. 2009).


The tension revealed

Tension is seen on the account of the tribal lines within the languages and the culture postulated by the two countries.  In the quest for the ruling of the government, the largest ethnic community in china always has the majority rule over the minor.  The principle of the tyranny of numbers applies in this prospect in a great deal.  This notion is strengthened by the fact that the country is endowed with a tremendous amount of natural resources that range from water bodies to wildlife (Xu, 2012).  This connotes a high sense of rulership and centralized power that always creates tension in the governance of the 292 groups of people who have diverse languages.  On the account of the Philippines, the country is of diverse religious beliefs.  The power of the authority is decentralized to the various islands which have their systems of rulership regarding the states and provinces.  The decentralization of authority to different counties and countries makes it possible for the tension of power to go down at each stance of governance. Additionally, the country is well aware of the essence of democracy.  They, therefore, have a system of governance that has high embraced the advent of the hierarchical structure of democracy that makes the whole scenario of tension quite small (Bulmer, & University of Papua New Guinea. 2009).

Ways to deal with the tension

Some of the ways in which the government of China has reduced the tension of the marginalization is through the inclusion of the other tribes in the national government.  This notion is done through the use of the excellent strategy of inclusion of the gender rule and the regional representative rule.  This move ensures that every marginalized area in the country is well represented in the parliament which makes the legislation on various issues affecting these areas.  The government of China has also developed a plan where it is geared toward the provision of various social amenities and economic resources in a more equitable manner to each and every region (Xu, 2012).  This execution is done with extreme concern on the population density of these areas and the economic endowment of the same. Periodic improvements are also done to gain more experience in the management and governance of every state in China as a country. A closer look at the Philippines, it is evident that the approach taken by the government is a retrospective approach that tends to deal with the coherent issues of national development that tends to serve the whole of humanity as far as the country is concerned.  The inception of various regulations such as the equitable distribution of economic resources from the national government is one of the areas that this country has ventured into. Additionally, the country has strengthened the education sector in order to bring sanity to the advent of low-quality education.  The education sector also has been streamlined into labor-intensive to (or “intending to”) meet the current demands of the job market (Kerkvliet, 2009).

Future trends of tension

In China, pressure on neglecting the marginalized community will still continue because the majority and minority disparity are still quite significant.  This huge difference will always inflict the marginalized citizens with a high sense of minority complex and they will continue complaining of the same.  On the account of the equitable distribution of economic resources, the tension is likely to reduce since the China government is very strict on matters of following the policy that has been outlined in the country (Bjener,, 2005). As it stands now, the tension created by the in a gesture of being favored by the government will be actually scrapped out so as to bring a more powerful stance of meeting the citizen’s needs. Additionally, the Philippines also abate the tension that is postulated by their government.  This would be achieved by the strict following of the various policies put in place to guide the country.  The reduction of such tension will be dependent on the level of corruption that has encompassed the country and the strategies put in place to end this menace.


In conclusion, China is seen to have a strong ethnic background as compared to the Philippines.  This notion is strengthened by the fact that the country has over 290 languages with 56 tribes.  The economic strength of China is also much stronger than that of the Philippines because of the sea of humanity that the country has (1.3 billion) apart from the tension that is seen in the marginalization of some communities, the country China still has high economic and political base than the Philippines.



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