The environment is the visible and invisible features hence,the natural world thatincludes both living and nonliving things, the water bodies, the natural occurring and relations in the world. Thus, the species, weather, climate and natural resources survival and economicactivity, on the other if there is no healthy interaction on the same it turns to a contamination of existence or good interaction with natural occurrence hence Environmental pollution. Denying the safety of the surrounding is conditioning the fruitful co-existence both human being and other ecological presence. This paper is going to discuss and try to answer three main questions concerning environment, first the essay will try to describe the current environmental and social condition in NIS of central Asia, Kazakhstan in particular, causes of environmental deterioration of the Caspian Sea and last look at the Human impact on environment in the Balkhash lake basin.
Kazakhstan being the ninth major nation on the planet earth,surrounded by land in Central Asia and is found on the northern side of the Central Asian nations, is currently facing a number of environmental constrains leading to difficulties in keeping its vast land in check for better growth of social wellbeing of the citizens.That creating difficulties to the rise of thengeneration. This was due to the rise of Soviet Union(EshpanovaandAidarbekov, 6) youthful people’s goals in their existence, the way by which they plan to accomplish them and their point of full of life civic participation have turn out to be significant factors of their socialization, indicators of elementary changes in Kazakh society. More and more young people’s communal growth consists of their achievement and improvement of their individual communal status, the configuration of their public individuality, their achievement of social adulthood and social focus hood. The only group of citizens that can be productive at particular time is the youths because they have self-motivation which sometimes can work negatively when opposed or denied access to the said opportunity. Thisdesire has not been realized because the conditions are very stressing because of poor coordination in the country hence concentration on the environmental upgrading.
Regardlessofamount of encouraging changes, the government and stakeholders are trying to avert the ongoing difficulties of environment;nevertheless, persuaded solemn tribulations have acquired additional importance in association with the processof globalization. Of exacting distress is the professionalism of prospectprofessionals, the degree to which the excellence and stage of their present preparation is in agreement with existing realities and global principles. Altogether, the professional wellbeing of youthful people hangs about underdeveloped. Inaddition of great importance is the generallyexcellence of the youthful professional beingskilled, and try to differentiate them rather than integration the youths who are very industrious to their own right, which presents the nation and culture with the mission of stimulating and raising the country’s culture.
Kazakhstan land enlarges to an approximated two million, seven hundred and seventeen thousand, three hundred square meters. The vast region of the country shares its bearing and distance across its neighboring nations from west to east, north to south hence bordered by the Russian alliance to the north, China to the east and Turkmenistan to the south. The vast land that defines Kazakhstan has as a country is a contributing factor to it havinggifted with plentiful natural capital, thus important mineral and remnantpetroleum deposits on its land.In others words Kazakhstan is the world’s second, third, and fifth largest exporter namely; chromium,uranium,lead and zinc reserves;manganese reserves; copper reserves respectively. The country is as well an exporter of diamonds,along with other top ten manufacturer countries of iron gold and coal.
One of the major environmental situations in the country is air pollutionwhich occurs because of industries, agriculture, municipal and emissions from transport in the country ((Michael, 4). Among other great industrialized towns in Kazakhstan,Almaty acts as immediate illustration of the condition.Numerous factors contribute to this crisis, countingAlmaty’slocation in geographical perspective,the wide increase use of coal for electricity plus heat generation andunfortunate industry performance on environment.This indeed makes the situation more complex because the spread increase health impacts of the efforts made, which in itself is a challenge in all the big towns. The actual statistics on dangerous substances are not knownfor the reason that they are not calculated in Kazakhstan. Lack of having real data of the most harmful emissions or substance worsens the environmental conditions as a result the social nature of the country is at risk the most harmful emissions or substances.It is also the leading greenhouse manufacturer of gas, in reference to the study done by the International Energy Agency, consequently the main country in terms of gas emission. In the year 2005 Kazakhstan was accountable for gas emissions for up to 75 percent of the world’s GHG emissions, that is to say the sector of energy is the major source of emissions.The percentage effects on emission translated together on a particular small ground at once puts any living species in danger.
On the hand the most natural resource like water which is the natural gift to the country has been negatively productive as far as environment is concerned. The economy is at risk if the use of all the available is encouraged. Unproductive irrigation activities, worsening irrigation infrastructure and poor drainage systemadd to water waste of irrigated grounds. Generally, the surface water quality is measuredto be good, althougha number of the river basins are contaminated. The contamination of water flow is majorly from the chemicals,refining oil,metallurgical and industries which build machines.Though, the water underground is contaminated and the drop of water transportation infrastructure is making it difficult for the provision of water to the population, the sea level has risen. The social part of it becomes a miserable condition because water is the basic daily routine commodity.
Kazakhstan as a country has a very stable social and economic establishments namely, right to education, right to public healthcare, right to social security, right to retirement insurance and housing right. In 1995 the constitution of Kazakhstan entrenched these rights to foster the level of social standards, which turned to be a very good move within its citizens.
The main problem that hindered these social rights is the poor social infrastructure. The settlement according to infrastructure has two categories thatis urban and rural. The urban social infrastructures are universities, banking, insurance, legal, transport companies, cultural, urban enterprises, and medical centers to name but a few. On the other hand, the rural infrastructure includes places of consumer services, kindergartens, cafeterias, public schools and mixed trading shops. In comparison the social income in urban areas is higher than the rural areas; this is discrete from the type of infrastructures found in those areas.
In the year 2012, the figures show that Kazakhstan expenditure was very high in education sector. This indeed promoted development in the country because it achieved new quality of human capital. In the last five years the expenditure on health care also went high by 12% indicating social wellbeing of the population. Though other sectors are improving, the housing cost is increasingly expensive, making the living conditions unbearable.
Caspian Sea is shared by five states is only one of its kinds in the ecosystem plentiful with natural livelihood and remnant, habitat to in excess of 15 million. The people who stay around there experience sequence of environmental challenges, this is due to climate change resulting from heavy release of substances to the atmosphere from the vast industrial system across the neighboring towns and geological instability, caused by so many factors namely human impacts thus human activities for so many years and current environmental condition, notably; overfishing and poaching,naturally occurring,industrial,agricultural and domestic pollution, release of improperly treated and sewage and urban effluents, direct discharge of extremely contaminated effluents from industrial project situated on coastline,pollution of the water body and sea base sediments pollution due to oil exploration and manufacture and emergency of all-encompassing species from indecent management of counterweight water relocation through volgo –Don waterway,as well radioactive solid and water waste put down near the sea. The decaying nature of both solid and liquid substances released into the sea cannot separated as harmful and not harmful but harmful altogether.
In the study report of 2000, the Energy Information Administration in stated thatcrude waste from the Volga River, into whichpartly the population of Russia and the majority of its serious industry drains its manure empties straight into the Caspian Sea (Mohammad 14). Oil removal and sanitization complexes in Baku and Sumgait in Azerbaijan are main sources of land based contamination, and offshore oil fields, refineries, and chemicals from the petrol vegetation have generated huge quantities of poisonous waste, overflow, and oil spills. Additionally, radioactive solid and fluidravage depositsclose to the Gurevskaya nuclear power place in Kazakhstan are contaminating the Caspian as well.
International collections plus local environmental Local groupsstates that the Caspian’s ecosystem has by now suffered very many years of exploitation from the Soviets, and is brittle and in need of improvement; not extrastrain. Many years of negligent environmental controls have desertedrisky toxins into the Volga River, as the major source of the Caspian and into the sea itself. The researchers approximate that each year standardof sixty thousand metrics (60,000) tons of oilby-product, twenty four thousand tons (24,000) of sulfites, four hundred thousand tons (400,000) of chlorine and twenty five thousand tons (25,000) of chlorine are discarded into the sea. This data gives the real picture hoe fragile the sea is and the continuous production and emission on the same will be severe, as a result the existence of the ecosystem can be in doubt for the better part of seasons.Consideration of oil and phenols in the northern sea are four to six times higher than the highestsuggestedvalues. in the region of Baku, everywhere oil removing and industrialization have been occurrence for almost a century, these wastes are ten to sixteen times upper
The sturgeon and the Caspian seal, one of two freshwater type on the planet earth, have been disappearing in big numbers consequently of polluters and poachers, who have operated with impunity since the collapse of the former Soviet Union. This operation went on for so many years until the world back came into its way of operation until it was stopped. The report dated June 21st 2000 by AP explained that seals have died in Caspian in thousands hence found along Kazakhstan’s Caspian coast sea. For instance,an outbreak those officials blamed on strangely warm conditions, except environmental specialistassociated it to oil pollution. Humanresource unruffled and damaged the bodies of eleven thousand seals that are dead. Therefore, a representative from emergency Situations Agency acknowledges that the problems of Caspian Sea contamination is separated into three categories namely;offshore oil industry, chemical pollution by the running rivers and Ecological problems, connected to the rise of the level of water.
I suppose that the mainlysignificant factor insideimperilment of surroundings in the Caspian Sea is oil effluence and all extra pollutions that come through it.The dishonest disposal of oil chemical is with no doubt bad habit hence the major cause of environmental deterioration of the Caspian Sea. This is to say, the examinationof oil and gas as the main activity, will enhance the development future contaminations of the sea. Therefore, a special thought to the oil contamination is necessary to avoid extreme come back of the same activities. Gladly, the body which is concerned with regulation and laws regarding the oil contaminations is exceedinglycomplex in the global law. The seashore nations have the same opinion to apply most of those rules and regulations to the situation in the Caspian Sea. For this reason, they do not still need to stay until the whole matter of the Caspian Sea’s legal administration is solved because by that time, maybe there will be nothing to care for. In addition, the international partners have an obligation to change the environmental conditions of the surrounding neighboring countries never to ignore because the ecosystem is connected. The most important mechanism of the international act in this case is the 1973 London conferenceor the International conference for the avoidance of toxic waste from Ships.
Duringthemeadow of setfactors which was to guide the ballast water has aexacting position. This is the water taken on by all types of ships, particularly oil tankers when they are not shipping oil cargoes, to keep them in serviceeasily. They throw the water, which iscontaminated when they want to reload.
Human Impacts on Environmental in the Balkhash Lake Basin
The fifth biggest secluded water basin and extremely brittle ecosystem, whose dynamics exhibits great oscillations in amount,caused by climatic factors and human being impacts. The main current oscillation was accompanied by creation of a waterstoreroom reservoir on the Ili River, the most important ﬂuid into the lake, an additional decline in the Balkhash Lake waterpoint, andto lack of moisture of wetland landscapes in the Ili River delta (Pavel, 8)
The act gaining state of fragile is contributed by the longtime human activities which have caused a lot of negative impacts to the Balkhash lake basin; we don’t expect such practices to establish positive impacts. For instance the human impacts are sediment erosion thus the natural erosion which could identified as natural though with a background of human impact,the damaging out of earth’s surface into the lake namely;abrasion, weathering,dissolution transportation and corrosion, pollution of the lake from the emission from the factories of mining, destruction of wetlands, introduction of non-natives, invasive species, algal growth in the lake one there is no fresh air no living species can survive hence the algal, eutrophication and change in food web to state but a few.
The connection of human practice ofbehavior or action is evident to be the majorreason of ecological stress.As the country is trying to improve the economy the ecosystem suffers a lot. The governments should try to develop marine and freshwater to reduce over exploitation. The problem of social integration can be reached if we deal with differentiation in young people rather than concentrating in integration.In summary, it can be concluded that that the shrink in overflowfollowing 1970 in the center and lesser reaches was the consequence of human actionthroughout the low-flow phase. The steps put to address the excess emissions of gas, overfishing, agricultural activities and poaching has a factor of environmental indiscipline. Atmosphericdisposition is therefore the main factors that affect both the water bodies and water quality in the system.
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