Essay: Compare and contrast Australia and New Zealand on the topics of ecosystem, historical migration of people and economic impact of the two countries on the world today?
a). Ecosystem comparisons: A comparison of the two counties can be done by giving special reference to humid affinities; that is, between New Zealand’s rain forests and that of south-east Australia. There is a closely related simplified cool temperature forest, which is dominated by one class of “Notho-fagus” both in New Zealand and Australia. The most ecological differences arise in the forests composition. Some of these differences include that Australia’s forest contains some kauri-podocarp in the broadleaf forest while New Zealand’s forest is a broadleaf and thus does not contain kauri.
- b) Historical migration of their people; the people of Maori are the original inhabitants of New Zealand. The Maori have a prominent part in the culture of the country. Australia has a different case with the aboriginal people as the original inhabitants who are nearly invisible. The Maori trace their roots back to New Zealand back to around 100 AD, from Cook Islands.
- c) In regard to the world’s economic contribution, New Zealand’s contribution is much smaller roughly one-seventh that of Australia. Australia’s contribution majorly emanates from major banks and exports, which are mainly dominated by the mining, agriculture, and education industries. Australia mostly exports agricultural and manufactured products.
- A) Discuss and describe the formation of atoll
Atolls are formed when the soft volcanic island stones are worn away, consequently leaving behind coral reefs only which formed at its periphery. Atoll formation begins when an underwater volcano explodes and creates a volcanic mountain below the surface. As this mountain builds up approaching the outside, its rough edges provide an ideal surface through which coral develops. As a result, circular coral reef will build around the mountain over time. However, the volcanic rock is soft, porous, and is gradually eroded away by the sea leaving a round reef and a huge lagoon. The new lagoon’s chemistry is acidic. This kills the inside coral that is finally pounded on by water action into sand. The sand covers and insulates the coral, which are still living and over time creates a sand atoll.
- b) How atolls are related to coral reef: Atolls are an extreme form of coral reef. They are circular coral reefs which completely or partially surround a lagoon. However, atolls are facing environmental challenges, which are diverse and sundry. These challenges may include climatic changes, which lead to a rise in ocean levels thus affecting its formation. They also face the problem of freshwater pollution and population growth among others.
- c) How atolls are related to the world’s wealth: Atolls are raw materials for construction work and also in flush toilet building. Therefore, atolls serve as a source of employment and income. In relation to atomic weapons, atolls have been included in the role of testing atomic weapons. A good example is on Bikini atoll, which was among the 29 atolls plus five islands forming the Marshall Islands.
3) Describe Haka in details
Haka is a traditional battle cry, skip or challenge from the people of Maori. It is a stance dance which is performed by a group and involves energetic movements and feet stamping together with rhythmically chanted complements. The dance is associated to the countries’ cultural diversity.