Finance: Sample Paper Review On Banks Models to Find Optimal Rate and Deposit Rate


Research has shown that banks hold capital in excess of the minimum threshold stipulated for banking institutions (Michael& Keeley 67). However, despite such adoptions, it has not averted the cases of financial crisis. In this regard, it has proven crucial to comprehendoverhaul capital determination. The behavior of the market is the major determining force that compels banks to hold positive capital. The emerging literature has focused on the liability side of the balance sheet. Emerging theories ascertain that the asset side of the balance sheet is also important (Michael 87). Mostly in the markets that tend to be more competitive, banks have found it profound optimal to utilize costly capital rather than the overall rate of interest of the loan and commit the resources to monitoring causes of mandating influx of the profitability regarding the borrowed funds (Robert 23).

How the finances are assessed

It’s paramount to use a mathematical formula in determining whether any credit requested provides enough return to warrant the provision of the loan. Example,Is L*(1‐t) >= (E*re)+ ((D*rd) +C+A‐O)*(1‐t). L is the effective rate of interest marginal rate used by the institution. E is the proportion of equity that is supporting the debt. Re is the rate of return on the marginal equity, D is the quantity of debt financing the loan, Rd is the operative marginal rate on D, c is the credit spread, Ais the expenses in relation to the loan including administrative expenses whilst O is the other counterweighing benefits to the bank in regard to the facility. In modest terms, the rate of the loan needs to cover all funding cost losses incurred and any other administrative expenses. This initial obstacle rate may be reduced by other benefits to the bank with respect to the loan (Zicchino 21).

Should The Combination Of Equity And Debt Impact Loan Pricing?

In an idealized environment, it has been proven that the overall cost of funds of a company wouldn’t be affected by a mixture of debt and equity (Michael &Keelly). An influx in the proportion of equity, which will tend to be more expensive than debt will eventually be offset by a decline in the cost per unit of debt, and equity especially, where the firm wishes to reduce the risk associated with insolvency.

Explicit and Inherent Government Guarantees of Deposit and Debt

The overall costs of borrowing for banks have been substantially lower than what one would expect in the case of a highly levered firm as a result of a guarantee from the government. In most instances, there is an explicit guarantee on deposit by two-thirds of FDIC. For instance, a whopping 80% of debts and deposits for most banking institutions in the United States of America come from deposits because bank guarantees make them very inexpensive (Michael &Keeley 19). Moreover, most of the loans from banking institutions come from the banks themselves which are mostly categorized as stable firms that cannot fail. The banks in this case tend to benefit from the rational assumptions of the investors that the government will not let the banks default on its obligations and will most likely intervene to reduce the damage. The guarantees in this regard make the obligations of the banking institutions moderate sensitive in correlation to the risk levels of the banks.

Works Cited

Allen, Franklin, Elena Carletti, and Robert Marquez.”Credit market competition and capital regulation.”The Review of Financial Studies 24.4 (2011): 983-1018.

Keeley, Michael C. “Deposit insurance, risk, and market power in banking.” The American Economic Review (1990): 1183-1200.

Zicchino, Lea. “A model of bank capital, lending and the macroeconomy: Basel I versus Basel II.” The Manchester School 74.s1 (2006): 50-77.