Sample Ethics Studies Paper on Utilitarianism

Question 1
Utilitarianism refers to a theory of morality that advocates for actions that cause
happiness or pleasure and oppose those that cause harm or unhappiness (Marchant, 2019). The
normative ethical theory (utilitarianism) portends that action right if it aims to promote happiness
and wrong if it tends to produce sadness. Notably, the theory of ethical philosophy, utilitarianism
advocates for the joy of an actor and everyone that it affects (Mudrack and Mason, 2019).
Egoism is an ethical theory concerned with the role of “ego or self.” According to this
philosophy, ego, or self, is the motivating factor and goal of all human actions (Beechler, 2018).
In other words, the theory shows that personal interests or desires drive all human activities.
Angier (2018) insinuates that the theory advocates for the policy of self-centeredness and desire
for personal good (Angier, 2018).
Relativism is the ethics that advocates for validity and equality of different points of
view. According to Almiñana (2008), relativism shows that concepts are valid depending on how
they are viewed. For instance, relativism would deny the existence of absolute truth. Moreover,
the theory affirms truth as a belief held by an individual, group, or culture. Consequently,
relativism would give a divergent opinion on morality and immorality (Zaikauskaite, Chen, and
Tsivrikos, 2020).
Absolutism is the belief in universal ethical standards and principles that apply to every
situation (Igor, 2019). For instance, the theory advocates for universal moral principles to all
people and across all relevant contexts. Notably, the ethical view of absolutism indicates that all
actions are intrinsically right or wrong. Unlike other theories, absolutism is strict because it gives
a standpoint for the judgment of all human actions (Pelegrín-Borondo, Arias-Oliva, Murata, and
Souto-Romero, 2020).

Question 2
A gerontological nurse is a person who coordinates medical conditions for the elderly in
various settings (Bahrami, Purfarzad, Keshvar, and Rafiei, 2019). Firstly, within the hospital
settings, gerontologists would work with the patient’s treatment team, such as doctors, to ensure
the patient's physical well-being. For instance, the caregiver would keep all the medical records
about their treatment and development (Coimbra, Silva, Rose Mary, Joaquim and Pereira, 2018).
In the rehabilitation and long-term care facilities, gerontologists would help in the
management of patients’ health in various ways. Notably, a gerontological nurse would manage
patients’ care from initial assessment, implementation, development, and evaluation of their care
plan. Consequently, the nurse works as a mutual link between the physician, family members,
and the patient (Coimbra, Silva, Rose Mary, Joaquim and Pereira, 2018). For instance, the
caregiver would have to communicate with the patient’s family members, explaining to them the
development and necessities that may be needed for their improvement. Consequent,
coordinating with a doctor would help the caregiver explain the medication so that the physician
can know where to improve for the patient’s wellbeing.
Secondly, the nurse would coordinate with the treatment team to ensure the patient’s
emotional and mental wellbeing. According to Santana (2020), separating the elderly from their
loved ones, lack of independence and failing health may result into emotional torture. In many
times, such patients get angry due to their conditions. Therefore, it would be necessary that a
gerontological nurse remain compassionate and cheerful, giving patients the necessary comfort
that they may require (Coimbra, Silva, Rose Mary, Joaquim and Pereira, 2018).



Almiñana, J.,J.Colomina. (2018). Relativism, contextualism, and temporal
perspective. Daimon, (75), 131-143.
Angier, T. P. S. (2018). Aristotle and the charge of egoism. Journal of Value Inquiry, 52(4), 457-
Bahrami, M., Purfarzad, Z., Keshvari, M., & Rafiei, M. (2019). The components of nursing
competence in caring for older people in iranian hospitals: A qualitative study. Iranian
Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 24(2), 124-130.
Beechler, M. P. (2018). Revisiting the egoism-altruism debate: Effects of contextual cues on
empathy, oneness, and helping intentions. North American Journal of Psychology, 20(1),
Coimbra, V. d. S. A., Silva,Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade, Joaquim, F. L., & Pereira, E. R.
(2018). Gerontological contributions to the care of elderly people in long-term care
facilities. Revista Brasileira De Enfermagem, 71, 912-919.
Igor, H. O. A. (2019). Morality and state in the fichtean political philosophy. Araucaria, 21(41),
Marchant, T. (2019). Utilitarianism without individual utilities. Social Choice and
Welfare, 53(1), 1-19.
Mudrack, P. E., & Mason, E. S. (2019). Utilitarian traits and the janus-headed model: Origins,
meaning, and interpretation: JBE. Journal of Business Ethics, 156(1), 227-240
Pelegrín-Borondo, J., Arias-Oliva, M., Murata, K., & Souto-Romero, M. (2020). Does ethical
judgment determine the decision to become a cyborg?: JBE. Journal of Business
Ethics, 161(1), 5-17.

Santana, R. F. (2020). 2020 – year of nursing – year of the pandemic – year of elderly individuals
as a risk group: Implications for gerontological nursing. Revista Brasileira De
Enfermagem, 73, 1-2.
Zaikauskaite, L., Chen, X., & Tsivrikos, D. (2020). The effects of idealism and relativism on the
moral judgement of social vs. environmental issues, and their relation to self-reported
pro-environmental behaviours. PLoS