Sample Essay Paper on Autism Spectrum Disorder

INTRODUCTION

Autism spectrum disorder is a brain related disorder that influences strongly how an individual relates socially with others. Often there is nothing that characterizes people with ASD in terms of physical appearance that distinguishes them from the rest, but individuals with ASD may learn, communicate, and behave in different ways. The learning, thinking and problem solving abilities can range from gifted to severely challenged.

CAUSES OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

No probable cause is known for autism, a lot of research has been done and continues to be done to try and get more information. Common misconceptions included; autism being caused by vaccination, by parenting and other social circumstances.

It is purely a result of changes to brain development which could be influenced by a number of factors including gene mutations.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

The symptoms of ASD vary widely, the dissimilarity of ASD symptoms probably reflect the complexity of brain abnormalities and other underlying genetic factors. Some clinical symptoms include;

  • Difficulty in communication and interaction with others.
  • Preference to certain routines and dislike for change.
  • Repetitive use of language and patterns of behavior.
  • Lack of interest in peer relationships.
  • Anxiety and depression.
  • Autism can affect usual reactions to what they see, smell, hear, touch or taste.

It is to be noted though that no two people in the autism spectrum are the same.

AUTISM SPECTRUM FACTS

The term spectrum refers to the wide variation in challenges and strengths possessed by each person with autism.

  • Autism is diagnosed in about four times as many males as females
  • If one identical twin has autism there is a 40% chance for the other twin to get autism.
  • Autism affects around 1 in every 100-110 people.
  • 45% of individuals with autism are likely to have seizures.
  • Symptoms in autism vary widely; some children may appear to have great intellectual ability while some have impaired intellectual ability.
CONCLUSION

There is no evidence to suggest whether these therapies are effective but they improve the individual’s behavior and developmental abilities.

REFERENCES

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Smith, M.D. (1989). Autism and life in the community: Successful interventions for behavioral challenges. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

Bailey, A., Le Coutuer, A., Gottesman, I., Bolton, P., Simonoff, E., Yuzda, E., & Rutter, M. (1995). Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: Evidence fom a British twin study. Psychological Medicine, 25(01), 63-77

Szymanskki, C., & Brice, P. J. (2008). When autism and deafness coexist in children: What we know now. Odyssey: New Directions in Deaf Education, 9(1), 10-15.

Delano, M.E. (2007). Video modeling interventions for individuals with autism. Remedial and Special Education, 28(1), 33-42

Ministries of Health and Education. (2008). New Zealand autism spectrum disorder guidline. Welington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health.

Walker, G. (2008). Constant and Progressive time delay procedures for teaching children with autism: A literature review. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1-16.

Christensen D. L., Baio J., Van Naarden Braun K., BilerD., Charles J., Constantino J. N., et al. Prevalance and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years—Autism and Developmental Disabillities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2012. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2016 Apr 1;65(3):1-23. [PMCID].

Graandin, T. (1995). Thinking in pictures and other reports from my life with autism. New York: Doubleday.

Rogers S. J. & Dawson G. (2009). Play and engagement in early autism: The early Start Denver Model. Volume I: The Treatment. New York, NY: Guilford Press.