Sample Research Proposal Paper on Impact of Violence on Children

Introduction

Violence has been a common practice in the world, where individuals use excessive force that causes harm or fatal accidents to their counterparts. Covell & Howe (2009) articulate that in a good number of cultures across the world, violence has been common against both women and children. This is why there has been a continuous increase in the number of deaths of the young children below the age of five. A good number of individuals never understood the cause of the deaths until the issue of violence against children was brought up. However, with this research proposal focusing on violence against children, it would be important to understand and know what it entails. Various researchers and intellectuals have previously come up with their opinions about what violence against children is. To start with, Lien Bragg considers domestic violence against children as a form of domestic abuse and neglect. Lien Bragg articulates that for several decades, domestic violence, especially that against children; has been as devastating problem, both socially and economically that has had significant impacts on every segment of the global population. Lien Bragg adds that while system responses are primarily targeted towards adult victims of abuse, increasing attention becomes focused on the children who are witnesses of domestic violence. At times, it is worse, because, as the young children face domestic violence, their mothers too are always facing the same (Finkelhor, 2009). This has caused fatal accidents and depressions in many families. It is argued that hitting a human being with any kind of material is not right. In respect to this aspect, children are people too and thus, the corporal punishments that is given to them has been found to breach their fundamental rights to respect for their human dignity and physical integrity. It should also be noted that the legality of corporal punishments to children breaches their right to equal protection under the law. Therefore, people and institutions need to come up with urgent actions in every region of the world that will aim at fully respecting the rights of all children, from the smallest and most fragile of people to the biggest and resistant people. People need to know that violence is in various forms. For instance, physical violence is the most common of all and it is always accompanied by psychological violence. Stark & Buzawa (2009) point out that insulting children, calling them names, isolating them, rejecting them, threatening them, and instilling a feeling of emotional indifference and belittling the children are all forms of violence against children that have often been known to have detrimental effects to the psychological development and well-being of the children across the world today. This is often considered serious and disheartening especially when the ill treatments are directed to a child from a respected adult such as the parent of the child. Pinheiro (2006) suggests that parents should be taught or rather instilled with knowledge and encouraged to employ exclusively non-violent methods of discipline. All individuals understand the fact that childhood is regarded as a period of special protection and rights. This is a common belief both in the western culture and other cultures such as the African culture. The development of children always has high expectations, whereby, it should unfold within an environment that is secure and nurturing. Where the environment is infected by violence and fear, all the normal tasks of growing up are likely to be adversely affected (Romito & Eastwood, 2008). For instance, it is worth noting that when children are exposed to domestic violence, they can have symptoms that are regressive such as wetting of the bed, delayed language development and the urge or the anxiety to separate from their parents. If all this are to be done away with, then there is no way out other than abolishing or eradicating existing cases of domestic violence against children in all countries across the world (India, 2006). Through this research paper, the student focuses on how community awareness impacts on violence against children with concentration on Saudi Arabia, a Middle East country.

CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW

It is worth noting that the rapid increase in the incidences or cases of violence against children in the past decades has prompted a number of researchers to study the reasons for the increased violence cases and whether there are awareness campaigns in the global community that aim at bring the practice to an end. The projects done by the researchers have been of great significance as they have been used by international organizations when coming up with violence-related statistics, which are often focused on children. Besides, the information collected by researchers on violence against children and women globally has been stored for future reference in a good number of educational institutions across the world. Notably, the information collected by researchers about violence against children and women has helped several governments of global countries to come up with and implement policies that have aimed at controlling the vice. Newell et al (2008) suggest that deaths of children resulting from violence can be done away with; hence people need to take the global human rights seriously. There are several human rights activists across the world and some of their roles are to make sure that the rights, such as those of children are followed strictly and to the latter. In fact, many parents who still pose maltreatments to their children risk being jailed or being charged (Stickle, 2008).

To start with, in the article Behind Closed Doors: the Impact of Domestic Violence on Children, a branch of the UN, the UNICEF critically examines violence on children and its impacts. UNICEF opines that children being part of the global community need safe and secure homes, that are free of violence, and parents that love them and are at their protection every single moment in their lives. In the article, violence is defined as a behavior that involves physical, psychological, emotional and sexual torture that has the purpose of hurting, damaging or killing an individual. In respect to this, the article defines violence against children as the physical, psychological, sexual or emotional assault that is directed to children with the aim of hurting them or forcing them to do something. According to the article, one would come up with various types of violence. To begin with, physical violence is where one physically assaults another and causes harm to him or her. Secondly, sexual violence is commonly directed to the female children, whereby, an individual sexually assaults or abuses another through rape (Building a Europe for and with children (Program), 2010). On the other hand, emotional violence is a situation experienced by children where they are neglected and are depressed emotionally. The other type of violence according to the article is psychological violence where the children are tortured psychologically, that is to say, they are neglected and are not given what they need (Johnson et al, 2007). UNICEF adds that children need to have a sense of routine and stability, in order for them to be safe when things go wrong in the outside world. This article acknowledges the fact that for too many children, home is far from a safe haven for them. It has previously been reported that every year, millions of children experience the exposure to domestic violence at home, and this has been seen or rather found to have a powerful and profound impact on the lives of the same children and their hopes for the future. Hedgepeth & Saidel (2010) articulate that the children who often experience cases or incidences of violence not only watch a parent assault the other violently, but also they often hear the distressing sounds of violence, or perhaps are often aware of it from a good number of telltale signs. The article in this case defines violence as a pattern that involves behaviors that are assaultive and coercive such as physical attacks on individual, sexual attacks on mostly female individuals and may be psychological attacks on an individual. However, according to the UNICEF’s article, the most common approaches that exhibit violence are physical attacks. Additionally, violence is believed to involve behaviors that are economically coercive that are always used by adults and adolescents against their current or former intimate partners. Ptacek (2010) opines that examples of physical abuse that illustrate violence against children given in the article include slapping, shaking, beating with objects, strangulation, burning, kicking and threatening children with objects such as knives or machetes (White et al, 2011). The article  gives example of psychological mistreatments often directed to children which include isolation from other members of the community, excessive jealousy, control of the activities of children, aggression that is verbal, intimidation such as destruction of one’s property, harassment in public, continuous stalking, threats of violence and constant belittling and humiliation. The article has come up with a number of negative impacts of violence on children. Firstly, UNICEF believes that violence against children is able to increase the risk of children becoming victims of abuse themselves.  This is underscored by the fact that there is a common link between child abuse and domestic violence against children. According to the article, among any victims of child abuse across the world, 40% of them always complain about and report violence in their various homes. The most common ways of violence in homes as opined by the article are physical and sexual assaults. Secondly, UNICEF is of the opinion that violence against children can lead to a significant risk of ever-increasing harm to the physical, emotional and social development of the children across the world. Development is an important part in the life of a child, and once interfered with, it is very difficult to return such a child to normal life. This is why  violence against children needs to be abolished. The article argues that infants and small children who are always exposed to violence in the home are introduced to so much added emotional stress that can cause harm to their brains and cause impairment their cognitive and sensory growth. Thirdly, UNICEF points out that domestic violence against children can lead to a strong likelihood that there will be a continuing cycle of violence for the next generation of children, and this likelihood should be eradicated (United Nations, 2007).

A study by the National Guard Health Affairs on violence and child abuse and neglect in Saudi Arabia also focused on knowing the impacts that domestic violence and child abuse have on the lives of children. In the article, just like the previous article, violence is defined as a behavior that involves physical, psychological, emotional and sexual torture that has the purpose of hurting, damaging or killing an individual. In respect to this, the article defines violence against children as the physical, psychological, sexual or emotional assault that is directed to children with the aim of hurting them or forcing them to do something (Villalón, 2010). According to the article, one would come up with various types of violence. To begin with, physical violence is where one physically assaults another and causes harm to him or her. Secondly, sexual violence is commonly directed to the female children, whereby, an individual sexually assaults or abuses another through rape. On the other hand, emotional violence is a situation experienced by children where they are neglected and are depressed emotionally. The other type of violence according to the article is psychological violence where the children are tortured psychologically, that is to say, they are neglected and are not given what they need. It is also worth noting that the study found out that violence against children is one of the most common causes of depression and stress among children leading to their separation from parents and even deaths among other serious occurrences (Naker, 2005). In order to do away with future domestic violence cases against children, the study came up with a number of recommendations. To begin with, the study stresses on the importance of the establishment and implementation of comprehensive awareness programs of domestic violence and child abuse and neglect. Besides, the study in this case emphasizes on the use of the media as partner in the awareness programs as media is the best platform of reaching several people at once. The other recommendation of the study that aims at reducing the incidences of violence against children is the establishment of training centers that will train professionals and employees on how domestic abuse and child mistreatment should be handled. It should also be noted that the study in this case stressed on all concerned institutions and agencies being mandated to document all cases of domestic violence and child abuse and neglect and that they should start data collection systems of all documented cases. The other convenient and effective recommendation that the study suggests is that conferences on domestic violence and child abuse and neglect need to be convened annually. It is in such avenues that national and international researchers and experts will convene and discuss all matters and aspects that surround or relate to domestic violence and child maltreatment. Without doubt, the recommendations put forward by the study if embraced or adopted, there will be a significant decrease on the number of cases that are reported annually across the world concerning violence against children and child abuse and neglect.

Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro in his reading World Report on Violence against Children (2006) also critically analyses and discusses what violence against children is and its possible impacts on the children and the future generation. Paulo looks at violence against children at different places and also looks forward to bringing the practice of violence against children to an end. Paulo articulates that violence against children often cuts across boundaries of religion and culture. That is to say, violence against children is common in almost all religions in the world comprising of Christianity and Islam. Paulo adds that violence occurs in homes, schools and streets, in places of work and detention centers among others. He goes ahead to say that at times, the effects or impacts of violence against children can be disastrous or devastating. For instance, he says that most early deaths of children occur as a result of domestic violence. However, Paulo is of the opinion that children who survive must or are often forced to cope with terrible physical and emotional scars that they undergo in their lifetime. Just like other researchers, Paulo opines that violence against children places a great risk not only to the health of children, but also their ability to learn and grow into adults who can create sound families and communities. Paulo also reminds the human race that violence against children has always been a great threat to global development and poses a great challenge to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. It is worth noting that the achievement of the universal primary education goal is unrealistic unless children are safe in school and at home.

Other researchers who have previously focused on violence against children and domestic violence against children are Maha Almuneef and Majid Al-Eissa. In their article Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready (2011), they opine that one of the ways of ensuring violence against children is done away with is through child protection. According to them, child protection involves the measures that are taken after a child has undergone mistreatment. They add that the violence against children have disastrous effects and hence should be done away with.

From the literature review discussed above, it can be noted that the researchers have come up with various reasons for violence against children. For instance, most parents are depressed financially and have no way out and this forces them to direct their stresses to children by punishing and this is risky to the health of the children.  Besides, violence against children is always common as a result of the indiscipline and disobedience of children (Moccia, 2009). Nevertheless, despite the indiscipline and disobedience, parents are often encouraged to find better ways of punishing their children other than giving them corporal punishments which are in one way or another, contributors of domestic violence against children. Across the world, between the years 2010-2014, the number of children experiencing violence has been on the rise. In 2013, approximately 204,000 children across the world reported cases on violence. This shows that international prevalence of violence against children if not taken care of will be on the rise annually.

In Saudi Arabia, it is found that among all the cases reported about maltreatments of children, 40% are cases of domestic violence against children. In 2010, it was found out that the rate of prevalence of domestic violence against children stood at 48.9 % though this was a significant drop as compared to the previous years. The drop was attributed to the measures that the government of Saudi Arabia had taken such as awareness campaigns which aimed at making the citizens aware of the devastating effects of the practice on children (Kwast & Laws, 2006).

From the LR, it should be noted that the community had various roles towards violence against children. For instance, the community should ensure that its members are made aware of the various effects of domestic violence and why it should be abolished. The other role of the community is to come up with measures that ensure the safety and comfort of children. The community also has a role of ensuring that children behave morally upright and are obedient and discipline to their parents and elders so as to avoid cases of punishments which in most cases are corporal punishments (Humphreys & Stanley, 2006).

  1. Significance of the study

The study to be conducted in Saudi Arabia focuses on collecting information about the impacts of community awareness on violence against children. The study is significant as it will come up with relevant information that can be used in the future to help combat violence against children (O’neill & Zinga, 2008). Besides, the study is significant as it can be used for future reference by researchers who will decide to conduct a similar study on a similar research problem.

  1. Aim of the research

The major aim and purpose of this research is to assess the impact of community awareness about violence among children. International organizations have had the cries of children all over the world. There have been emphases that the rights of children should be followed strictly and to the latter (Pinheiro, 2006). For instance, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) has stepped up to ensure that children enjoy their lives and stay freely without being mistreated by anybody (UNICEF, 2005). It goes without saying that children have faced a number of challenges in the recent years such as violence from parents, relatives and friends among others as pointed out Council of Europe, & building a Europe for and with children (2008). Therefore, this research, through assessing the impact of community awareness about violence among children in Saudi Arabia, will come up with ways of bringing the violence to an end.

  1. Research Proposal Questions

There are a number of proposed questions that will help in the conduction of the research. One of the questions that will form an integral basis during the research is: what are the community levels of knowledge about the violence against children in Saudi Arabia? It should be noted that Saudi Arabia is a Middle East Arabic country with most of the citizens being Arabs and of the Islamic religion. Islam is one of the most renowned religions worldwide that stress on human rights. Thus, the Muslims are often on the forefront in ensuring that the rights of children and women are followed strictly and to the latter. Normally, there are rare cases of domestic families in Muslim families (UNICEF Swaziland, 2007). This is accredited to the teachings that the religion emphasizes on in relation to following of human rights (women and children). Thus, basing on the research proposal, the community has great knowledge about the violence against children, and this supports the reason why in the Arab countries, Saudi Arabia being one of them, incidences of violence against children are rare. The other research proposal question that will steer the research about violence against children in Saudi Arabia is: Did the community have the correct knowledge about children violence? This is a definite yes. This is due to the fact that there are always very few incidences or cases of violence against children in Saudi Arabia (O’neill & Zinga, 2008). Arabs have or rather respect human rights. By so doing, they exhibit the possession of the correct knowledge about the need of not battering women and children (Institute of medicine (U.S.) & Patel, 2011). The other question that will spearhead the research is: did awareness programs improve community knowledge? Individuals should understand the fact that in order to bring an end to the violence against children in the world, community knowledge about the impacts of the violence is very important. Thus, community knowledge is often enhanced through awareness programs such as campaigns against violence against women and children. Through this campaign programs, people are often enlightened on the need of treating women and children well and what violence would do to them (Moccia, 2009). The government of Saudi Arabia is known come up with public campaigns that have made people know the effects of violence against children and women as stated in Handbook for legislation on violence against women (2009). The other way through which awareness has been enabled in Saudi Arabia is including courses that talk about human rights in educational institutions. This has helped do away with the rampant cases of violence that were previously witnessed in Saudi Arabia. The other question which is a hypothesis of the research is: are there improvements of the Saudi community about the violence against children? This research aims at finding out whether Saudi Arabia as a country has seen remarkable improvements in terms of the violence against children. Most probably, this hypothesis will be confirmed, as recent research shows that Saudi Arabia is one of the countries in the 21st century where cases or incidences of domestic violence have reduced significantly. The final research question for the study is: is there increase in the community awareness about violence against children? Research shows that in Saudi Arabia, among youths who reported cases of abuse and maltreatment, 52% were victims of violence (Cowen et al, 2009). However, in the recent years, this figure has changed to 48% and this is a clear indication that there is an improvement in terms of violence against children. The improvement can be attributed to a number of factors such as the adoption of strict measures and policies that restrict parents and other people to mistreat children by giving them corporal punishment.

  1. Hypothesis

Lehmann & Romano (2005) articulate that a hypothesis is the opinions that a researcher forms about a certain area or topic of study before the actual study. Thus, by conducting the study, the researcher aims at confirming whether the hypothesis is right or wrong. For this study, the hypothesis is:

  • Are there improvements of the Saudi community about the violence against children?
CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY
  1. Study Design

The outcome of this research paper is based on the methodology that would apply in the course of the research. In any type of research, the outcome is often dependent on the type of methodology used. The study design that will be used for this study in Saudi Arabia is quantitative research design. While qualitative methodology deals with non quantitative type of analysis which include collection, analysis  and interpretation of data based on what people say or do, the quantitative research methodology deals with the measure on the quantity or a mount and giving comparison with the past record in relation to future improvement. The main aim of using this type of methodology will be to develop and employ quantitative models, hypotheses or theories that pertain to impact of community awareness on violence against children. The process of measurement to be employed will be central to this research methodology since it provides a fundamental relationship between mathematical expression and empirical observation.  A statistical method is the best for this particular methodology since it will facilitate determination of a large number of respondents. The quantitative approach will be the best for this work since it is applied research rather than a basic reach. This research is designed to solve problems of violence in the modern world but not to acquire knowledge for the sake of it with the aim of improving the human condition in reference to child violence especially in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. This research methodology will be problem oriented and a problem solving research method. This research methodology will therefore base on the investigation of a number of ways to use scientific knowledge in practical problem solving which for this case is to come up with a quantitative methodology which will otherwise help in solving the children violence within the study area (Creswell, 2014).

  1. Siting

The study area will be King Fahad hospital in the southern region of Saudi Arabia.  This area is chosen since the research showed that most of the children admitted to this hospital suffered child violence from the parents.

  1. Sampling

To achieve the objectives of the study, sampling as a methodology technique will be applied. Creswell (2014) is of the opinion that a sample is a subset of population under study. Since it is difficult to handle a very big sample, the main area of focus will be children between the age of five and fifteen. This will be a manageable category having in mind that in quantitative research methodology, a sample should be considerable and manageable. In selecting this age group and this particular hospital, one should be confident that the objective of the study will be achieved. Sampling will also minimize the destruction of the observation time and at the same time increase the level of accuracy. In sampling, consideration will be philosophical, mathematical and practical problems that must be put in place for any scientific methodology. There are almost three types of samples. These are the convenient sample, judgment sample and the random sample. Of all these three, the best will be the random sampling method to carryout carry out this investigation. Random sampling actually is the most recognized and with minimal biasness and therefore it will be one of the best for this kind of study. After identifying the best type of sampling method and the target group, sampling method or procedure will be designed. In fact there are different procedures of sampling which include, simple random sampling where each member has equal chance of being picked, and systematic sampling which deals with selecting the number of the population, cluster sampling dealing with a particular cluster or group and finally the incidental sampling method dealing with intact group. The incidental method will be the best for this study since it will deal with a specific group of children.

  1. Sample Size

Sample size has to be designed for this study. According to the population number of children in the hospital that is 400, sample size will be 120, this is in regard to the sample size table with 95% confidence 0.05 error and p= + or – 5 precision. Actually a considerable sample size should be equal or greater than 30 (Creswell, 2014). The study period being between 2-3 weeks, a sample size o f 120 will be appropriate.

  1. Robustness of data collection methods

In quantitative research methodology there are various methods of data collection that are encompassed. Thus, understanding the meaning of the term data collection is important. Data collection is the process where information is gathered and measured in a way that enables the individuals involved to answer the stated research questions, test hypotheses and evaluate the outcomes (Creswell, 2014). The major areas included in data collection are: the scientific methods, sampling, survey techniques and questionnaire design, content analysis, secondary analysis of statistics and quantitative data analysis and finally computerized data analysis packages. The purpose of data collection is always to come up with important information and figures that give an explanation to why an issue is perceived to be the way it is.  As a scientific process, the overall process will revolve around hypothesizes design, prediction derivation from the logical consequences and carrying out experiments on determination of the validity of the hypotheses. This research is to be done at King Fahad hospital in the southern region of Saudi Arabia. The first step be taken is to formulate a question based on the observation available. The question “why is there violence against children in Saudi Arabia?”  This will be followed by formulation of hypotheses which in this case is “Community awareness has positive impact on the violence against children” Followed by the actual research in the field to ascertain the above hypotheses.  The first step will be research on the question. Statistics from the ministry of social affairs indicated that 45% percent of children in the kingdom of Saudi are victims of different forms of violence. This raised a lot of concern in lack of awareness in the society.  This research also indicates that there is tremendous increase in children violence weather in classroom or at home. Violence against children have is seen to have increased due to poor reasoning by parents as they bring up their children.  To ascertain this, a good data collection techniques will be developed and even the analysis done on the same. Moreover, the other quantitative research methodology will be to develop experimental design (Creswell, 2014).  The basic principles of experimental design which in this case purport to increase the precision of the experiment through replication, randomization and local control will be considered. There are various types of experimental designs which include completely randomized design, the netted design, the Latin square design, and the factorial design among others. The best choice will be the completely randomized design for accuracy.  120 children admitted in the hospital will be chosen randomly followed by formulation a questionnaire. The questionnaire will assist in data collection. The questions that will be included in the questionnaires are the proposed research questions such as:

  • What is the community level of knowledge about the violence against children?
  • Does the community have correct knowledge about children violence?
  • Does awareness program improve community knowledge?
  • Are there improvements of the Saudi community about the violence against children?
  • Is there increase in the community awareness about violence against children?

The type of questionnaires that will be issued to the respondents is open. This is because the questions are open and the respondents are free to give their views without being forced to give the yes or no answers (Creswell, 2014). The questions that will be directed to children include: is there increase in the community awareness about violence and are there improvements of the Saudi community about the violence against children. Confidentiality is important hence once the questionnaires are filled they will be sealed in envelopes. Besides, the respondents will not have to include their personal details on the questionnaires. Other information such as the consent form will only be taken from parents as the children are perceived to be too young.

  1. Data analysis

In this research, both primary source of data from the special investigation done and the secondary source which is found from the information gathered from other people will be used. The questionnaire will be objective, smart and achievable with a clear defined aim of getting information on violence against children and the impact of creating awareness on violence against children (Creswell, 2014). From the questionnaires, analysis of the data from the respondents within the hospital in this period of 3 weeks will follow. This data will be analyzed by the non parametric technique where there is no strict assumption and no technical formulas are used. These will include the sign test and the Chi square test, followed by dong comparison with the secondary data found from other sources. The data will then be presented using the various data presentation methods.  The aim of this study to investigate the community level of knowledge against children and weather there is changed in the knowledge about children violence. The analysis of the data will also employ SPSS method which is very important in the critical analysis and arrangement of data. It is worth noting that the analysis of the data will also involve identification of variables that will be focused during the study. For instance, in this case, the independent variable is the violence against children while the dependent variable is the stress that the children undergo when they face violence.

From the analysis of other research papers it is evident that violence against children is on the rise (Romito & Eastwood, 2008). Based on the data fond from both primary and secondary sources of data, the study shows that most of the horrific incidents are on the rise. For instance, in 2008, a report from the local media house revealed that a number of school teachers were able to identify signs of physical abuse on the face of a student called Rahaf. This was evident by the burn mark on her body. The same will be focused on the research that will done at the King Fahad Hospital which will focus the number of children suffering a physical assault. Actually this area was chosen as the study area due to its renowned cases of violence against children. The data presented through graphs and pie charts from the study done on this hospital also indicated high level of child intolerance by some parents. Similar information was also reported in the media in 2009 which shocked the nation. A 10 year old Ghasoun was tutored by her father and step mother until she succumbed to her injuries due to sustained mental and physical abuse that lasted several months. In fact this was the first incident with such a magnitude in Saudi society where a father was being convicted in a court of law by murder of his own daughter. In the same year, another girl by the name Areej was physically assaulted to death by her father and step mother. A previous research done at this hospital stated that a certain girl used to be physically assaulted as a result of poor performance in school by her father and step mother. There is even a day when the girl was tied and left in the house when the farther and the step mother went to the picnic. The statistics from the recent study shows a similar result to the one researched in king Fahad hospital   indicating that almost a fifth of the children from Saudi are still being subjected to perpetual abuse. A study done by the center for combating crime based on the same methodology indicates that a quarter of the cases came as physical abuse.

  1. Pilot Study

It is important that before the conduction of the study, a pilot study should be done. A pilot study is a study that is described as preliminary that is conducted in order for the researcher to be able to evaluate feasibility, time, and cost and effect size (Creswell, 2014). The purpose of a pilot study is for the researcher to be able to predict an appropriate sample size and come up with improvements before the actual study is conducted.

  1. Ethical Consideration

Based on this research, a legal action should be taken to implement the children act so that children in Saudi can be protected at all cost. The research also shows that there is child to child violence in schools. International NGO advisory council for follow-up to the UN study on violence against children et al (2011) points out that awareness campaign should therefore be confined to parents but also to children. Child neglect was also considered as a form of violence. The ministry of education has to take part in creating awareness on the importance of peace among the children and between the children and their parents. The preferences are that those who practice violence against children should be arrested and charged (Grover, 2010). Besides, they should be encouraged to embrace better ways of punishing children.

CHAPTER 3: PLANNING FOR THE RESEARCH PROJECT

The main aim of the research is to identify the impact of community awareness about violence among children in Saudi Arabia. The outcome of the study should focus on knowing the influence of community awareness on domestic violence against children. Besides, the outcome of the study will help come up with measures and strategies that the government of Saudi Arabia should embrace in order to eradicate the problem of violence against children completely (Naker, 2005). Thus, planning for the research project is important.

  1. Time Scale

The study will be conducted at the King Fahad Hospital, located in the Southern region of Saudi Arabia and it is scheduled to take around 2 weeks.

  1. Resources

There are a number of resources that will be used during the study. For instance, the researcher will have reference documents with relevant and important information about violence against children. Other resources that will be vital during the study include fieldwork objectives that are documented, schedule of the planned activities at the study and a fieldwork data form, where the information collected will be stored. The cost of the study is projected to be 1000 Riyals per student. The cost of materials to be used during the study is projected to be approximately 20,000 Riyals inclusive of all the facilities required. The planning of the project will involve putting in place various steps to be followed. To start with, the planning of the project will involve an analysis of the facility required for the study. This will be vital for a successful study in the hospital in focus. The second step is to ensure that the facilities available collaborate with the programs and activities in plan. Thirdly, the fieldwork contract or letter of agreement should be put in place in readiness for the project. This often serves as a legal document that connects the fieldwork site, in this case the King Fahad Hospital and the research or study programs. The forth step in the project plan is to develop the resources required for the study. These resources include the fieldwork data form, the fieldwork objectives, the field student manuals, the schedule of the activities planned and a preparation of an orientation. The orientation will provide the students with the knowledge and understanding that is needed for a successful fieldwork experience. It should be noted that previous successful fieldworks have been as a result of effective and timely preparation, and this is an objective that the research looks forward to achieve (Creswell, 2014).

  1. Questionnaire
  • What is the community level of knowledge about the violence against children?
  • Does the community have correct knowledge about children violence?
  • Does awareness program improve community knowledge?
  • Are there improvements of the Saudi community about the violence against children?
  • Is there increase in the community awareness about violence against children?
  • In conclusion it is worth noting that violence against children is one of the most serious challenges that is facing the generation of the children in the modern world. Debates have come up among international organizations on whether punishment by parents should be done away with or promoted.  Nevertheless, discipline is a very important element among children and should be instilled in the right way. As argued by Giardino et al (2010), corporal punishment of children both in school and at home has often been referred to as violence against children. As a matter of fact, there are instances when the people have been arrested and charged for physically assaulting young children. It should be noted that violence against children has a number of devastating effects and need to be done away with or rather abolished.
References

(2009). Handbook for legislation on violence against women [electronic resource]. New York, NY, United Nations.

BUILDING A EUROPE FOR AND WITH CHILDREN (PROGRAM). (2010). Protecting children from sexual violence: a comprehensive approach. Strasbourg, Council of Europe Pub.

COUNCIL OF EUROPE, & BUILDING A EUROPE FOR AND WITH CHILDREN (PROGRAM). (2008). Eradicating violence against children: Council of Europe actions. Strasbourg, Council of Europe Pub.

COVELL, K., & HOWE, R. B. (2009). Children, families and violence challenges for children’s rights. London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

COWEN, R., KAZAMIAS, A. M., & UNTERHALTER, E. (2009). International handbook of comparative education. Dordecht, Springer.

CRESWELL, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, California, SAGE Publications.

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