Sample Paper on Social Media

Michael, Haenlein and Kaplan Andreas. Users of the World, Unite! The Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media, Business Horizons, 53(1): 59-68, 2010. Print

According to Haenalein and Kaplan, social media refers to internet based applications utilized to build ideological and technological foundations allowing creation and exchange of user-generated content. The authors from the Institute for Strategic Dialogue (ISD) run an experimental action funded by Open Society Foundation to research a project in order to understand the impacts of social media. They also evaluated intolerance and attitudes of social media in Europe based on inter-group dynamics. They discovered that, social media is used to transmit information among groups and individuals across various websites including YouTube, Twitter, and Facebook among others. Recently, social media has increased and expanded allowing users to post and share photographs through Instagram. This has expanded the mechanisms of developing, expanding, and maintaining social relations among social media users. As a result, the authors classified social media into the following categories; social networks, content sharing sites, content ranking tools, and geo-location tools. Social networks include Twitter and Facebook. Content sharing sites and content ranking tools include Bing, Google, and Yahoo among others. With regards to geo-location tools, it refers to social sites utilized by users through GPS to locate various towns, shops, restaurants, and other global or national locations (Michael and Kaplan 62).

Thelwall, Mike. Social Network Sites: Users and Uses, Advances in Computers, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(1): 21-231, 2009. Print.

According to Thelwall, social networks are the most consistent, popular, and utilized sites and tools especially in Europe. Thelwall also discovered that, social networks are widely used in other global parts dominating social media usage. This is because users desire passing and sharing information. As a result, they gain and expand knowledge enhancing the learning process. Through digital divide, people able to access the internet and utilize it for various reasons. For example, young members from minority communities utilize social media to embrace and support their own identity. More so, social media provides them with additional opportunities to strengthen their social,Political figures also utilize social media to seek for votes, publicize their policies, and seek for support from members of the community to remain in office. Thus, social media can be used to navigate private and public dimensions of the community. This is because it neither discriminates nor prejudices on race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic clusters (Thelwall 33).

Office of National Statistics (ONS). Internet Access: Households and Individuals, Office of National Statistics Report, 2011. Print.

Office of National Statistics (ONS) asserts that, there are barriers to engagement with social media. For example, internet users ought to be understanding and confident in using technology in order to facilitate accessibility. This enhances positive attitudes among the users in order to gain knowledge, get entertained, and engage in social media in other beneficial ways including earning an income. Office of National Statistics discovered that, people face the following barriers at home and work to achieve internet and social media accessibility. Foremost, they perceive some social media content as either insufficient or inapplicable. More so, computers to access social media can be too costly coupled with high maintenance costs. Consequently, costs of accessing social media can be too high. Thirdly, some users lack skills to use a computer and access contents on social media. Conversely, some users believe social media is harmful risking their personal security concerns and privacy. Other reasons included physical disabilities either hindering or discouraging use of internet and social media (ONS 7).

Beer, David. Social Network(ing) Sites: Revisiting the Story so Far, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(2): 516-529, 2008. Print.

The author also asserted that, social media and networks provide various benefits to the users. For example, social media encourages integration decreasing social divisions. Thus, the author asserts social media differs from other forms of media based on how it shapes people’s attitudes, perceptions, social lives, and ideas applied to change global communities. People form and change ideas and views to control messages given and passed as they are powerful in shaping global societies. For example, online and offline media differ on how the internet is operated. They also differ from traditional journalistic conventions as they transmit information across different mediums. Traditional journalistic media rely on editors, channels of commissioners and journalists to gather and transmit information. Several parties are involved to make a decision to either transmit or omit particular information to the public. Social media however does not limit, edit, or filter information. It provides a wide range of sources of information. The users are therefore responsible in editing or determining the type and form of content they desire to access. As a result, the author affirms social media is set on a light-touch regulation emphasizing anyone can access any type and form of information at any time and place (Beer, 518).

Arthur, Brant. The Era of the Social Media Peer Group: Everyday Influence, Abilene Christian University, 2009. Print.

The author collaborated with the Society for New Communication Research (SNCR) to evaluate recent developments in social media with regards to communication channels and their impacts on traditional media. The author also assessed impacts of social media on social cultures and business models to determine the bridge created among academic communities, practitioners and social users. Through a survey, it was revealed social users utilizing twitter and other micro-blogging sites are mainly members of college and university faculty. Thousands of higher education professionals revealed they have or continue to use social media. This affirmed that, uses of social media can neither decrease nor be limited. Instead, users are consistently increasing. As a result, providers of contents through social media ought to expand and improve the quality and quantity of information accessed by users (Arthur 47).

Kietzmann, Jan and Kristopher Hermken. Social Media? Get Serious! Understanding the Functional Building Blocks of Social Media, Business Horizons, 54(1): 241-251, 2011. Print.

The authors seek to assert that, social media have virality due to the ability of sharing contents among various social sites. Virality therefore refers to the specific functionality of social media sites to provide users with the ability to access, share, and reshare information based on users’ interests. Thus, social media users should acknowledge applications and sites allowing contents to be accessed and shared can increase propinquity. This refers to the ability of modern and advanced technologies enabling the expansion of social media to either transfer or collaborate with traditional media channels enabling communities to be closer. As a result, information gathered from traditional social media channels can also be transmitted and transferred across various social media platforms and sites. This can help business ventures to identify and utilize the new opportunities in building and expanding individual, organizational, national and global economies (Kietzmann and Kristopher 247).

Tang, Qian, Gu Bin, and Whinston, Andrew. Content Contribution for Revenue Sharing and Reputation in Social Media: A Dynamic Structural Model, Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(1): 41-75, 2012. Print.

The authors assert that, social media has improved, increased and expanded socioeconomic reputations globally. Social media sites are frequently used to acquire information that can permanently change the social economic conditions in a country. For example, the sale of mobile devices is aimed at expanding use of social media. This has created job opportunities for manufacturers, web designers, and developers of various applications to collaborate and produce a high quality device. As a result, this has prompted mobile device manufacturing organization to acquire and register patent rights. Content contributors are also required to register before participating in the expansion of social media. This has earned global nations revenues. It has also earned the organizations large profit margins. For example, Samsung and Apple are globally recognized as major producers of high quality and standardized devices facilitating accessibility to social media. Thus, they earn more revenues as social media users increase and sites providing the users with information and contents expand. Consequently, they pay taxes utilized by global governments to improve social, political, economic, and environmental aspects. Thus, social media is beyond sharing information. It also involves building a reputation, careers, and enabling various parties to earn monetary income (Tang, Gu and Whinston 52).

Mathew, Auer. The Policy of Sciences of Social Media, Policy Studies Journal, 39(4): 709-736, 2012. Print.

In 2013, Turkey banned users from accessing and using social media after the Taksim Gezi Park protests. The government believed various social media sites were utilized in organizing and planning the protests. A court order was therefore issued blocking accessibility to social media sites suspected to have participated in fueling the protests. Twitter is a major social media promoting social connections among students, employees, employers, and government officials. It can therefore be used to build relationships either personally or professionally. It can however also destroy these relationships. For example, students spending too much on social networking sites record low grades. More so, employers either limit or block social networking sites to ensure employees are neither distracted nor slacking off. Thus, social media can be utilized to express ideas, enhance critical thinking, and help users to reflect and rewind while participating in positive actions leading to socioeconomic, political, and environmental growth. Social media can however influence social and political policies encouraging cultural differences to divide communities leading to misunderstandings and wars. For example, Anthony Weiner resigned from Congress after misusing social networking site. Conversely, Egyptians utilized social media to plan, organize and undertake demonstrations aimed at overthrowing President Hosni Mubarak (Mathew 721).

Works Cited

Arthur, Brant. The Era of the Social Media Peer Group: Everyday Influence, Abilene Christian University, 2009. Print.

Beer, David. Social Network(ing) Sites: Revisiting the Story so Far, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(2): 516-529, 2008. Print.

Kietzmann, Jan and Kristopher Hermken. Social Media? Get Serious! Understanding the Functional Building Blocks of Social Media, Business Horizons, 54(1): 241-251, 2011. Print.

Mathew, Auer. The Policy of Sciences of Social Media, Policy Studies Journal, 39(4): 709-736, 2012. Print.

Michael, Haenlein and Kaplan Andreas. Users of the World, Unite! The Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media, Business Horizons, 53(1): 59-68, 2010. Print

Office of National Statistics (ONS). Internet Access: Households and Individuals, Office of National Statistics Report, 2011. Print.

Tang, Qian, Gu Bin, and Whinston, Andrew. Content Contribution for Revenue Sharing and Reputation in Social Media: A Dynamic Structural Model, Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(1): 41-75, 2012. Print.

Thelwall, Mike. Social Network Sites: Users and Uses, Advances in Computers, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 60(1): 21-231, 2009. Print.