Closed call system: this is a limited vocal communication system that is used by non-human primates to communicate and convey meaning and to express state of danger, happiness, or pain, by use of calls and gestures.
Cultural universals: these are learned behavior patterns, characteristic, and tradition that are common, recognizable and shared by all human cultures globally.
Part 2 Summary of Aubrey Neil Leveridge’s text
- There is a strong linkage between culture and language as language is used to retain, foster and express culture.
- Knowledge of culture can help a person to understand a culture of a given group. Thus if you want to learn a language easily it is good that you first learn its culture.
- It is good for the instructors to understand the culture they are working in order to be able to teach the language to the students.
- It advisable for teachers to respect and appreciate by familiarizing with the culture they are operating to avoid confusion.
- There is need for the law makers should to create a conducive environment for the language and cultural exchange and learning by including the cultural views of the students and its geographical cultural background.
Part 2: (Issues for Discussion): and write an essay of about 300 words on the different ways language and culture are deeply interconnected. (8 marks)
There is no doubt that language and culture are connected in various ways. For instance, language enables us to share views, plan, and meet our goals, by enabling us to do these things we can be able to readjust out behaviors to fit with our cultural demands.
Language as a form of human behavior also affects culture. Therefore, language reflects culture, which changes from one place to another through language that helps to express and foster it. Furthermore, language determines how people view the world and their environment depending on their culture, which is a learned behavior patterns, and views hence; language does enrich culture by transmitting it through expression of ideas and thoughts.
As language transmits culture it is good to learn other culture so as to deepen ones understanding and enhance communication since cultural differences may limit communication. Hence, a person learning different cultures can help him/her to communicate in the language without fear of cultural shock. More so, language barriers as a result of cultural differences can create communication barriers such as stereotyping, discrimination, and prejudice and at the same time, it can help one to understand the given culture.
Since language shapes our experiences it can help one bridge that cultural rift that may exit and help to end stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination against persons with varying culture.
In sum, language is a vital element in culture as it helps shape the past and relates it with the present and future, at the same time, while different cultures possess varying language, it is the same language that helps us to express ideas and ones views on a given culture.