The age of reason in chapter 17 shows, the capitalism period of 1700-1789 when human began industrializing. During the time, the British abandon the monarchy system while France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria the system of monarchy was gaining eminence. In Britain aristocracy emanate and during the period a special class of people, the middle class, begins advocating for the right of everybody and equality on all levels of operations. This intellectual and cultural movement was labeled as the enlightenment as it was seen to bring people to light at the time. Furthermore, the period is marked by emergence of great political powers in France, Britain, Russia, Prussia, Netherlands and Austria.
The great political powers saw a rapid urbanization in the various countries. People by then were in classes with the Aristocrats at the helm followed by the upper middle class through the broad middle class, the lesser artisans and finally the metropolitan poor. The enlightenment group at the time advocate for humanism. The main agenda is to improve the quality of life of the humans through music and art. John Locke in his tabula Rosa agrees with the sentiment of human perfection through art and music. The enlightenment philosophies at the time were on the issues of freedom of human to allow perfection. The philosophies included full confidence in life; Nature could be studied emphatically and it was orderly and good. Since human were perfect beings therefore society could also be perfected. Supported that political, economic and religious institution should be considered utilitarianism for the general happiness of the society. Advocates free choice of religion and that educational institution should be free of control by religion. Finally, there was the embracement of deism by the society in the period.
The ah moment is in the analysis of the prominent philosophies specifically Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) of 1694-1778. He is the author of Candide in which he gives a religious and political optimism. The author says, “If God did not exist it is better to invent him” (Roy T, F. Dewitt and Thomas F.X 219-289). He advocates the use of music, novels, letters, and plays to drive this message home. The author’s comments were full of pessimism and were meant to ridicule the bureaucracies in church. He also ridicules Mohammad though he praise the Islamic religion as a chaste, severe, wise and humane religion.
Denis Diderot 1713-1784 is another great author the chapter uses with his publication of Encyclopedia. He was a great patron to Catherina the great of Russia and he emphasizes on conventional mortality. He is the compendium of knowledge in arts ,crafts and sciences. Finally, we have Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de Montesquieuof 1689-1759. He was a believer that by formation of government people would live without fear of one another. He viewed the government in three forms that included despotism (fear), republic (virtue) and monarchy (respect). Another notion he had was that woman were not jst the head of the family, but could also head governments. Charles also opposed the use of slaves in farms and at home (Roy T, F. Dewitt and Thomas F.X 219-289).
Another group of individual in the reason age was the physiocrats. The group enlightenment was on the economic issues of the society. They believed mercantilism to be harmful and closely examined classical economic theories. They clearly understood the laws of supply and demand and advocated that individual in the society were well off when they served their own interests.
Roy T, Matthews, Platt F. Dewitt, and Noble Thomas F.X. Experience Humanities. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2014. Print.