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Sample Annotated Bibliography Paper on Trends and the Future of Petroleum Refining

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Sample Annotated Bibliography Paper on Trends and the Future of Petroleum Refining

Moro, Lincoln F. Lautenschlager. “Process technology in the petroleum refining industry—current situation and future trends.” Computers & Chemical Engineering 27.8 (2003): 1303-1305.

Moro investigates the course of actions and production optimization applied in petroleum refineries and refining industry. According to Moro, the application and use of modern tools and engineering refineries have grown and has focused on improving business in the petroleum field (Moro 1304). Although technology and the degree of advancement in the tools and computerized programs differ, the field of refinery continues to experience and undergo several unresolved challenges. Moro points out that advanced and modern technology are of age and seem mature, mechanical generation of scheduling in refinery operations only aim to achieve midterm goals. The author presents current needs in addition to the current state of the technologies applied and at the same time gives a preview of the challenges faced with the same (Moro 1304). While the author acknowledges the effect and changes brought about by modern trends of technology, the challenges and problems posed by the same are also looked at with the aim of finding lasting solutions to perennial problems faced in the industry.

An understanding of the previous technologies helps in coming to terms with the great milestone achieved and made in the refinery field with the goal of having a guess of some of the upcoming advancement and technologies aimed at solving and improving the challenges faced by refineries. Moro argues that, in order to set the industry on a consistent growth pattern, it is important to acknowledge the impact of major drawbacks such as the minimum RD facilities and pollution. Moro (1305) points out that focusing on long-term petroleum industry development and growth should be adopted to enable refinery owners improve on refining capacity and incorporate new technologies and new ventures. The book is important as it gives a preview of some of the expected developments and growth in the industry in terms of production and increased adoption of new technologies. According to the author, new trends are yet to grace the industry with many players entering the industry to counter and improve on the manufacture of petroleum by-products.

Absi-Halabi, M., A. Stanislaus, and H. Qabazard. “Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs.” Hydrocarbon processing 76.2 (1997).

According to Abis-Halabi et al, the central emphasis of petroleum distillation in the late period of 1970s and 1980s was to improve on alteration of heavy oil products to distillate products and gasoline. However, the authors argue that while this was the major aim of refineries, currently most petroleum refineries are aiming at developing and producing clean petroleum products. The aim has further been made strictly by the need to reduce dangerous emissions from the refineries and the product itself meant for consumers. Abis Halabi et al (1) argues that improvement and new technologies have enabled refineries to adopt environmentally friendly methods of production that are both economical and effective. The application and adoption of technologies such as catalytic membranes and biocatalysts aim at solving challenges faced in the refinery and anticipated problems.

Catalysts play a central role in refineries and refining processes with great focus aiming at meeting refining developments and setting refinery industries on a smooth course of improving petroleum products. The authors further discuss some of the factors that dictate and direct trends, technologies, and trends set in refining technology together with the application of catalysis (Abis Halabi et al 1). The use of catalysis helps in mitigating and solving emerging trends in research on both long term and short term refining. An understanding of the role of catalysis in petroleum refinery helps in foreseeing the developments and trends in petroleum engineering in addition to mitigating any future potential threat to a petroleum refinery. The role of catalysis further helps understand the various trends and improvements in the refinery sector and gives a pointer to future development in which advanced methodologies will emerge as alternatives to the traditional refinery methods.

Fernando, Sandun, et al. “Biorefineries: current status, challenges, and future direction.” Energy & Fuels 20.4 (2006): 1727-1737.

The biorefinery is a similar petroleum refinery process that helps in producing chemicals and fuels from biomass. The biorefinery is often categorized into three categories, which is determined by the processing capacities, flexibility in production, and volume of generation. The three phases are interdependent on each other and offer a glimpse of some of the technologies and methods used in the resulting processes. According to Fernando et al, streamlining and conventional refineries make up the most advanced methods of the biorefinery. The production and processing of biorefinery are, therefore, dependant on the aforementioned factors that dictate on the type of production applied. The authors maintain that the platforms for chemical reactions are based on an integrated biorefinery concept that entails a complicated system of machinery for maximum utilization of the bio-products. Fernando et al, maintain that emerging trends and development in the biorefinery aim of application of environmentally friendly methods that are not harmful to the consumers as well (Fernando et al 1729).

Fernando et al point out that the application of the “high value, low volume outputs,” is an example of advanced technologies aimed at simplifying the processing output. The process is similar to petroleum refinery in which the occurrence of technical challenges is minimized and solved to reduce the cost of production. The authors argue that advancement and improvement in production in terms of new technologies have reduced the overall cost of the refinery in addition to producing alternative chemicals and fuel from biomass (Fernando et al 1732). The article is important as it offers a glimpse into some of the advanced technologies employed in various refineries with the aim of improving refinery methods and production. Additionally, the article helps understand the concepts of production in line with various advanced systems and technologies. The authors, while emphasizing on the production of clean energy, further presents the outlook of future petroleum production and refinery amidst the increased demand for petroleum products globally.

 

Gary, James H., Glenn E. Handwerk, and Mark J. Kaiser. Petroleum refining: technology and economics. CRC press, 2007.

Gary et al argue that due to the multi-billion inputs in the ever-changing industry of petroleum refinery, the majority of refineries and players in the sector face challenging situations accompanied by many years of the lead period. Additionally, the authors maintain that due to the long periods involved in research and installation of equipment, many players in the field take a lot of time in understanding the dynamics in the market on issues such has processing requirements, product distribution, state and federal legislation, and refinery feedstock. The authors discuss details on topics related to running costs, yields, catalysts, and finished petroleum products (Gary et al 23).

Although not mentioned directly, the author’s discuss the need to employ advanced technologies for improving production and minimizing risks. For example, the author’s points out that in order to maximize production and minimize operating costs, refineries need to employ cost effective measures such as computerized methodologies that measure and keep tab of the best-required level of chemicals in a given product (Gary et al 46). For example, the authors state that the application of catalysts needs an accompaniment of best-suited machinery to improve on the product for the market. While this focuses on the need to employ up to date apparatus, it sets the ground for advanced methods and methodologies in refineries with the aim of meeting the demands of the market and putting into consideration environmental factors such as air pollution. Using detailed design and evaluation strategy, the authors provide up to date data and some of the expected changes in the refinery business while providing ways of minimizing costs and improving processes at the refinery level. The authors acknowledge that players in the field are faced with the constant need of research to come up with the best methods and technologies that meet the demands of the market. Future trends point to great improvement in the industry, despite low volumes of petroleum byproducts. The book is important as it gives a glimpse at some of the expected future developments and trends in the industry as well as the economic impact of the development.

 

 

Works Cited

Absi-Halabi, M., A. Stanislaus, and H. Qabazard. “Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs.” Hydrocarbon processing 76.2 (1997).

Fernando, Sandun, et al. “Biorefineries: current status, challenges, and future direction.” Energy & Fuels 20.4 (2006): 1727-1737.

Gary, James H., Glenn E. Handwerk, and Mark J. Kaiser. Petroleum refining: technology and economics. CRC press, 2007.

Moro, Lincoln F. Lautenschlager. “Process technology in the petroleum refining industry—current situation and future trends.” Computers & Chemical Engineering 27.8 (2003): 1303-1305.

 

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