Schools originated from the living style that Europeans had acquired of come together village system, which was later rejected by colonialists. The school calendars were set according to the farming seasons; this meant that schooling would not affect the farming program. The colonialists valued farming. There is a difference between education and schooling; education is the process of cultural transfer in relation to church and family. Whereas, schools are the institutions where cultural education is transmitted, they were responsible for teaching the American Nationalism.
The ability to show the student’s success is based on several factors that either limit or enhance the ability to be a fast learner in school. These factors are from the theories that have been put in place to discover why things happen or are done in a particular way. The following theories and concepts explain why we have some students performing better than others at school.
Sex verses gender: Sex and gender are two different terms. Most people consider them to have similar meaning. Sex is defined as the physical features on the body visualized at birth; such features are used to distinguish a male and a female. Gender is a sense of identity where individuals learn more about sexuality in cultural behavior and understanding. There are well-known features that bring out the difference between male and female, which includes roles and clothing.
In a school setup, sexism has greatly affected the performance and the motivation of many students. For example, the contribution and efforts in research done by women is not recorded as reference in the books of history. Male dominance in the technical fields and higher positions in the job markets acts as a barrier to success of female students in schools. Such examples give the male fraternity a good avenue to succeed more than female students do. Females are said to be of weaker sense, hence the boys take dominance since they are of a greater sex, and girls cannot defeat them.
Theories of race: Race is the unique factor in a group of people in the foundation of common physical individuality like skin color. In America, racial discrimination was evident in terms of superior race and inferior race; the superior race had total influence on the whole population. The whites took dominance by snatching land from blacks and destroying their social setup and making them to work on the same land. The results of genocide and enslavement were creation of a boundary between people of different color. The policy that cropped up from enslavement was racism whereby the children were at no time supposed to achieve freedom. This dull history left a scar that is not easily covered where as much as racism is not supported by many, the impact is still felt today in the cultural practices. Ethnocentrism involves creating a mindset of categorizing people according to the race that one belongs.
The set norms affect the success of the inferior raced students where they believe they cannot defeat the whites who are the superior race. The attention that is given to the students is discriminative, whereby the white students are favored than the blacks. The blacks are associated with primitiveness and backwards. With such mentality, the black students cannot have the driving force to display their best abilities. Such unequal treatment in schools leads to poor performance by the affected students. The improvements that are made to improve the biasness are based on what the whites will dictate on what the inferior races should get, hence no merit. This leads to success dominating only to the perceived superior race in the nation.
Social transmission theories: They are also called functionalist systems theories. They are based on the belief that societies possess basic functions equivalent to biological living organisms. A classic sociologist argued that it is important for each society to carry out its natural functions like reproduction, cultural transmission, and governance in order to survive. According to the functionality theory, schools are not to be trusted to give out students who give and share the basic cultural, political, and economic norms of a given society. The education system came and dominated the church and the family unit that were the major social institutions.
The change in the institutional roles has brought conflict on how information is passed from one generation to the other. This has given rise to puppet like students who are programmed and trained in specific fields they will join to offer skills learnt in schools. The theory recognizes the good performers only who are identified and rewarded, leaving out the poor performers. This brings about social inequalities that have been previously prescribed by the society, hence restricts achievement to the victimized students. Functionalist theory assumes that education is fair to all students, which is not the case. The assumptions result in some students being left out in the educational race. The perception of the bright students being given special attention makes them dominant of the success in schools.
Conflict theory: This theory draws its basis from the contradictions of capitalism in the sector of property ownership between labour and capital. The way wealth and resources are distributed is a major source of conflicts in the society. There exist groups that have dominance and determine what ratio or portion others will get. This creates inequality to the voiceless and the non-powerful people. This brings about the line sandwiched between the poor and the rich and when this gap arises, the conflict on who will get what arises. The differences between the powerless workers and the powerful capitalists is clear, hence such kind of conflicts extend to the school system.
Conflict theorists saw the school as part of the crisis rather than resolution. This is from the impression that only the elite have the power and should retain it. The schools system of creating classes and separating students according to the social class and status is a major fail of the school system. Self-esteem for lower class students is affected as they are seen as failures. Students are categorized according to the class that they are associated with; hence, those from rich families are accorded the best services and attention. Students from rich families are placed in schools that have the best provision of educational materials and resources paid for by their guardians; this makes them to have dominance in being successful. Therefore, students from poor families have limited chances of succeeding in school.