Sample Research Paper on Evaluating Claims Research


Just like the adults, the young people need a lot of counseling in efforts to grow up into responsible as well as mature grown-ups. Offering counseling services to these young people helps in assisting them with supportive, confidential, as well as open backgrounds in which they can share and improve their thoughts and emotions on a variety of issues. Thus, given open and supportive environments, youths discover and establish decent ways to resolve a number of issues at home, social in addition to school environments. Besides, with safe surroundings, adolescents are able to build problem-solving techniques and understand the importance of seeking help in complex situations. Similarly, most of these adolescents need help or counseling when dealing with stressful situations. Some of these common school and social problems comprise issues such as bullying and peer pressure. This implies that counseling these youths becomes critical, especially in allowing most of the adolescents manage home and family stress, particularly when there are major changes in their lives including relocation, disease, or separation. With different issues facing most of the adolescents, this paper explores the ways of counseling adolescence to cope with substance abuse, peer pressure and bullying. Furthermore, the paper addresses the following major questions:

  1. What are the different ways that can be used to counsel adolescents to cope with peer pressure and bullying?
  2. Does counseling create a positive effect on adolescents’ behavior?

The rest of the paper is organized in a manner that explores ways in which the different sources that have been used present various claims. The second section after introduction is the description of the claims and evidence from the eight sources used in the paper. In this section, the author will present information about the different positions that sources take as well as how the sources support the mentioned positions. The third section of the paper will delve into the critical evaluation of the eight sources used (non-scholarly and scholarly), in which the author will integrate evaluations and explain the sources. This section will also present the strengths and weaknesses of the information offered by the sources in addition to addressing unanswered questions or questions in these sources. The fourth section will present the comparison of the used sources, where the author will be making comparison among the sources and evaluation of the sources. In this section, the author will also look into ways in which the sources support or refute one another and explain sources that were more helpful. The last section will be the conclusion, where conclusive statements regarding counseling adolescence to cope with substance abuse, peer pressure and bullying will be made.

The second part of this paper will delve into research study proposal, where the author will propose a study in order to address unsolved or unaddressed factors identified in the sources or to strengthen the evidence for a claim. The proposal will include different sections, including the rationale, design, participants, measures, procedures as well as analysis.

Description of the Claims from the Sources

Behavioral interventions, including the use of protection during sexual intercourse may be of great assistance in preventing transmission of HIV in addition to assisting HIV victims cope with life. Moreover, behavioral interventions have been established to be effective, especially in enabling adolescents to cope with peer pressure as well as bullying. Correct use of antiretroviral counseling may steadily increase the prognosis of HIV as well as its associated ailments. What is more, previous comprehensive uses of antiretroviral in high-prevalence have been proven to decrease the rate of transmission of HIV as well as its related infections. In their investigation, Simoni, Nelson, Franks, Yard, and Lehavot (2011) evaluated whether peer interventions for HIV were useful. Their findings found out that peer interventions were effective in preventing the spread of HIV and other associated diseases.

The study by Simoni et al (2011) used different intervention modalities including cognitions as well as attitudes, sexual risk actions, substance abuse, in addition to HIV knowledge. Their findings also supported the use of peer interventions for reducing the rate of HIV infections, including such interventions ass HIV knowledge, use of condoms, and reduced sharing of injection equipments for drug users. In addition, this study also suggests some confidence in the utilization and application of peer intervention measures to HIV prevention among the youths; therefore,  offering encouragement as well as support for the use of peer innervations in disease prevention.

In another study, Yu et al (2008) investigated the use of mental health counseling in the transition of adolescents into young adults. This study found out that even with the different needs in mental health among adolescents, there were overwhelming evidence about the use of mental health services in counseling teenagers.  Moreover, Yu et al (2008) studied the different predator factors and characteristics of counseling for adolescents, and established reasons for care among adolescents with mental health needs. Findings from this study showed important observations, especially on mental health needs for adolescents. Yu et al (2008) revealed higher rates of mental health needs for counseling in adolescents. In addition, considering the severity of mental health problems, the study showed significant predictive characteristic of counseling use with both the adolescents as well as young adults.

Yet, in another study, Hernandez (2010) examined the variations in the use of substances and related risk factors among Hispanic as well as White non-Hispanic adolescents receiving counseling on alcohol use. His findings indicated that most of the White non-Hispanic adolescents smoked more compared Hispanic adolescents. According to Hernandez’s (2010) findings, a number of factors were responsible for substance abuse among the adolescents including aggression, behavior problems, as well as anxiety.  Hernandez (2010) showed that antisocial behaviors were strongly related to early use of alcohol among adolescents. The study also found other risk factors including family conflicts, parental substance abuse in addition to poor family management practices. Hernandez (2010) suggested parental monitoring, warmth, as well as support as protective measures against substance abuse among adolescents. In addition, Hernandez (2010) suggested the need for attention in the course of counseling adolescents in efforts to assist them cope well with feelings of perceived denial.

According to Higgins, Piquero and Piquero (2011), the development of the theory of general strain has particularly added knowledge to the renewed focus on the harmful experiences of life on antisocial behavior among adolescents. Higgins, Piquero and Piquero (2011) argued that high peer rejection contributed into increased delinquency as well as crime levels among male adolescents compared female adolescents. This study suggested that presence of high rejection led adolescents into criminal behaviors as compared to when there were minimal peer rejections. Thus, in counseling adolescent to handle peer pressure, Higgins, Piquero and Piquero (2011) advocated the importance of comprehensive knowledge about peer or group dynamics.

In their book, Geldard, Geldard, and Foo (2016) offers a definitive guide to counseling adolescents, in which it introduces many trainers as well as practitioners into the theory, principles, skills in addition to various techniques that can be used proactively in efforts to counsel adolescents. The authors explores the challenges, opportunities as well as influences that face adolescents today. As a multi-disciplinary book, it recognizes the diversity of needs and diversity of approaches in terms of skills in dealing with adolescents.

In a blog by teendrughubs, the effect of peer pressure on teen substance is also explored. The blog offers a number of facts regarding drugs and the potential effects of adolescents engaging in drug abuses.  In particular, the blog explores ways in which peer pressure develops, how adolescents’ thoughts transforms when peers and risks are involved, as well as the role of social learning among teens, especially in relation to drug abuse.

In their website titled “Teen Rehab Center,” the organization explores the issues surround drugs, drinking as well as peer pressure among adolescents.  The organization evaluates the definitive meaning of peer pressure among teens and offers different measures of dealing with peer pressure. Among the various ways offered include resisting drug abuse, picking the right school to attend, as well as studying longer.

The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry also explores the topic of peer pressure among adolescents. Here, different ways to coping with peer pressure are given including, staying away from peers that pressure one to doing things that are wrong, learning to say ‘no,’ as well as sharing with grown-ups such as parents, teachers as well as counselors.

Critical Evaluations of the Sources

Hernandez (2010) study was particularly important in its analysis regarding the variations in the use of substances as well as related risk factors among Hispanic as well as White non-Hispanic adolescents receiving counseling on alcohol use. In particular, the results of this study contributed greatly into the study of child and adolescent development. The findings showed variations in drug use among adolescents in addition to suggesting adolescent counseling as an important element towards changing the behaviors of these teens. However, this study had some limitations, especially in terms of interpreting the results. The first limitation was that the study was relatively small, thus reducing its statistical data. The second limitation was that the study’s participants were not be matched on income level because of missing income information from Hispanics.

Simoni’s et al (2011) applied different intervention modalities such cognitions as well as attitudes, sexual risk actions, substance abuse, in addition to HIV knowledge. The results obtained supported the use of peer interventions particularly in reducing the rate disease infections. The strength in this study was its ability in order to integrate different modalities in the study of various situations that face teenagers. One of the weaknesses of this study was that the researchers used a relatively smaller number of participants in their study, which may have not made the findings much representative.

Higgins, Piquero and Piquero’s (2011) was also very important, since it helped in the development of the theory of general strain, which has particularly contributed to the current body of knowledge regarding negative experiences encountered by the youths. One of its strengths lays in its use of representative data in addition to analyzing a wide spectrum of adolescent experiences. This study was limited in the manner in which it presented its findings.

In their study, Yu et al (2008) investigated the utilization of mental health counseling in the transition of adolescents into young adults. The study was particularly important due to its analysis of different needs within the mental health environment among adolescents. However, the study relied so much on secondary data in its analysis.

The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry presented important information about peer pressure among adolescents. Its strength lies in presenting a substantive amount of information that is helpful in assisting youths deal with negative pressure. However, it failed to undertake qualitative or quantitative evaluations to determine its claims. Teendrughubs blog was also strong in its presentation of substantive information, but also failed to proof its claims empirically.

Comparison of Sources

Both of the eight sources have delved into the same topic, “child and adolescent development.” All the eight sources have dealt with the same topic regarding the role of counseling in helping adolescents deal with peer pressure, substance abuse as well as bullying. Hernandez (2010), Simoni’s et al (2011), Higgins, Piquero and Piquero’s (2011) and Yu et al (2008) have all presented interesting insights on the role of counseling and offered different ways of helping adolescents deal with drug abuse, bullying as well as peer pressure.



Counseling adolescence to cope with substance abuse, peer pressure and bullying is an important subject, which can contribute significantly into enabling adolescents develop normally. Different authors have offered different insights regarding the best ways of counseling adolescents in order to ensure positive behaviors. The topic is particularly important for parents, teachers as well as councilors in helping them know the best ways of helping adolescents deal with peer pressure, substance abuse as well as bullying. The different studies have comprehensively dealt with peer pressure, substance abuse and bullying; however, some have not used representative samples in their studies, while others have completely used none. Therefore, there is need for another study in order to contribute to the body of knowledge.



Research Study Proposal


Substance abuse, peer pressure and bullying remain high, mostly striking the young adolescent girls and boys, who are greatly affected due to lack of relevant knowledge and guidance. The anguish that comes with the effects of substance abuse, peer pressure and bullying and its associated disenchantment from right behaviors changes the intentions of these adolescents. However, proper actions and behavior do not come easily as there is a requirement for the counseling, which is usually unavailable to many of these youths. Therefore, there is need to assess the effects of counseling in bringing positive change in terms of behaviors among adolescents.


This proposal will apply both qualitative as well as quantitative research designs to obtain and analyze information obtained. This is because of the unpredictability of the respondents in the area of study, diversity of the data in addition to maximize the amount of information collected.


The target population of this study is the students from ten (10) high schools, who are in their first and final years.


This study examines counseling adolescence to cope with substance abuse, peer pressure and bullying. The study variables include the adolescent behavioral change, which is the dependent variable. Independent variables include adolescent counseling, peer pressure, bullying, and drug abuse.


Data will be collected using questionnaires, which will be administered to the respondents who will fill them and then return them for analysis. In addition, information will be captured from these questionnaires. Besides, in-depth interviews will also be conducted with some students who have already been involved in drug abuse and peer pressure, including those who have experienced bullying during school.

In addition, direct interacting with the respondents using questionnaires, structured interviews as well as focus group discussions will be used. Secondary sources of data will be journals and the internet. Other documented groups reports will also be reviewed as well.


The data to be collected during the field study will be prepared for analysis in which editing will be undertaken. It will also be checked for quality as well as organized properly and be put into the computer. The information will be analyzed using the SPSS software that will transform and compute the information supplied; descriptive statistics will also be used in order to interpret the results. In addition, the analyzed data will be presented using bar graphs, pie charts, percentages as well as frequency tables.



American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2016). Peer Pressure. Retrieved from < >

Geldard, K., Geldard, D., & Foo, R. Y. (2016). Counselling adolescents: The proactive approach for young people.

Hernandez, L. (2010). Ethnic group differences in substance use, depression, peer relationships, and parenting among adolescents receiving brief alcohol counseling. Journal of ethnicity in substance abuse, (2010), 14.

Higgins , G., Piquero, N., & Piquero, A. (2011). Youth & society. General Strain Theory, Peer Rejection, and Delinquency/Crime, 43(4), 1272-1297.

Simoni, J., Nelson, K., Franks, J., Yard, S., & Lehavot, K. (2011). Aids and behavior. Are Peer Interventions for HIV Efficacious? A Systematic Review, 15(8), 1589-1595.

Teens Drug Rehabs. (2016). The Peer Pressure Effect on Teens Substance Abuse. Retrieved from <>

Teens Rehab Center. (2016). Drugs, Drinking, Peer Pressure. Retrieved from <>

Yu, J., Burns, J., Adams, S., Brindis , C., & Irwin, Jr., C. (2008). Use of mental health counseling as adolescents become young adults. (3 ed., Vol. 43, pp. 268-276).