Learning in the classroom requires a combination of skills to contribute towards gaining knowledge. Learning is cumulative, and that is why children start from the basic alphabets towards complex words and sentences. According to Gagne theory, learning incorporates different levels and each level requires certain types of instruction. Schemas are the ingredients of intelligent behavior. Verbal information is essential for learning, as it helps in organization of words, leading to declarative knowledge. Knowing how to direct learning, remembering, and thinking is vital for cognitive development. Thus, teachers should develop various task analyses to enhance performance objectives in the classrooms.
Gagne’s theory is quite different from cognitive theory because it does not categorize learners while cognitive theory specifically targets children’s learning. Gagne’s theory purports that different instructions are needed to realize each category of learning outcome. Knowing how to perform tasks procedurally and executing movements is essential in learning outcomes. Cognitive theory involves understanding the process of thinking, which determines how humans behave. Information processing can be described through the thoughts. In cognitive perspective, individuals determine how to tackle new learning situations and create ways to master new ideas through adaptation in the learning process.
Children have the ability to gain knowledge at different ages depending on their logical development. Teachers should understand the works of Vygotsky and Piaget in order to apply such knowledge in the classroom. According to Vygotsky’s theory, children can acquire knowledge through interacting with knowledgeable adults. Thus, interaction with teachers in class enables children to imitate them in the learning process. Piaget’s theory asserts that knowledge is a process, where children can develop knowledge through adapting to the classroom environment. Teachers should enhance cognitive constructivism through promoting individual learning that encourages building of conceptual structures. This process assists in the storage of information. Thus, teachers should only assist children to build their own knowledge through assimilation and accommodation.