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Sample Dissertation Chapter Paper on the Relationship between High School Athletic Participation and Involvement in Risky Behaviors

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Sample Dissertation Chapter Paper on the Relationship between High School Athletic Participation and Involvement in Risky Behaviors

Background

Previous researches on sport participation among students focus on the social outcomes of this activity and educational attainment of the same. Some of these researches demonstrate a positive relationship between students’ functioning and sport participation while others demonstrate a negative relationship on the same. Studies that demonstrate a negative relationship between the two have identified a number of factors that contribute to participation in risky behaviors among the students (Feldman, & Matjasko, 2005). A research by Vest and Simpkins highlights alcohol use as one of the major factors that contribute to participation in risky behaviors among the high school students. This research claims that students that participate in sports tend to consume alcohol more than those that do not participate in sport activities. The research also claims that even though alcohol consumption among students does not always lead to drug abuse, alcohol consumption among students relates closely to school dropout, negative sexual experiences, and violence (Vest, & Simpkins, 2013). This suggests that if students participating in sport activities consume alcohol more than their counterparts that do not engage in sports, then participation in sports is likely to influence the students’ involvement in risky behaviors. Suffice to say if this is true, participation in sports is a predictive factor of engaging in risky behaviors among the students. Nonetheless, this is what is subject to scrutiny in this study; thus, does not act as a theoretical basis of the study. Researches also highlight peer relation as another major factor that contribute to participation in risky behaviors among the students (Kort-Butler, & Hagewen, 2011). In relation to social learning theory, Vest and Simpkins argues that adolescents influence one another in shaping their behaviors. However, for this to happen, adolescents should encounter other adolescents that engage in behaviors that are likely to influence their behaviors. In other words, a student should be close to students that abuse drugs for him/her to abuse drugs (Vest, & Simpkins, 2013). This being the case, then it is likely that if students participating in sport activities engage in risky behaviors, then they are likely to influence their colleagues once they join them. This notwithstanding, it is also likely that participating in sport activities reduces the vulnerability of the students involvement in risky behaviors. The peer literature shows that popularity is an influential factor when it comes to alcohol consumption (Taliaferro et al., 2008). The argument is that popular students tend to consume alcohol and abuse other drugs because of peer influence. Based on this fact, it is likely that students participating in sports are likely to engage in risky behaviors because of their popularity in sports (Zamboanga et al., 2012). If this is the case, then participation in sports will act as a predictive factor of engaging in risky behaviors.

Over the last few years, the number of youths engaging in risky behaviors in the USA has been rising tremendously. Some people attribute this trend to participation in sport activities while other people do not attribute this trend to participation in sports (Taliaferro, Rienzo, & Donovan, 2010). While this is the case, experts in this field of study do not have a clear picture of how peer relations among students that engage in sport activities influence their behaviors. On one hand, experts argue that students engaging in sports influence one another positively in developing self-esteem, physical health, and academic achievement. On the other hand, experts claim that these students influence one another negatively in developing problematic behaviors (Vest, & Simpkins, 2013). In relation to this argument, one might suggest that the two options are possible, but it would be important to study this area of study to have a clear picture of what happens when students engage in sport activities.

A research by Brown et al found an increase in suicide attempts among the male and female students that engaged in athletics. Nonetheless, the same research established that suicide attempts among these students were lower than they were among the students that did not engage in sport activities (Brown et al., 2007). In response to this trend, experts have developed different hypothetical mechanisms to explain the controversy. Some experts argue that the interpersonal support that students engaging in sport activities get from their coaches, teammates, and other people in the sports provide the athletes with therapeutic support that reduce their involvement in risky behaviors (Tok, 2011). Experts also argue that participating in sports helps students acquire some positive behaviors that reduce their likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Besides these arguments, experts that evaluate suicidal thoughts among the students claim that suicidal behaviors among students relate inversely with physical activities (Taliaferro et al., 2008). This means that the more students engage in physical activities the less they are likely to commit suicide.

A research by Zamboanga et al found that approval of positive alcohol expectancy results and encouraging assessment of negative expectancy results of the same associated closely with risky drinking behaviors. On the contrary, the students that did not consider alcohol taking as effective in sports did not engage in risky drinking behaviors. The mean age of the participants was 15.6 years with a range of between thirteen and eighteen years (Zamboanga et al., 2012). This research examined the link between alcohol expectancy outcomes with sport functioning among the high school athletes. Other researches on alcohol consumption among the youths that engage in sport activities suggest that majority of the youths that participate in sport activities end up consuming alcohol (Simpkins et al., 2012). Zamboanga et al claims that this is a worrying trend given that longitudinal researches in this area of study suggest an increase in alcohol consumption among the students that participate in sport activities. However, the most frustrating thing is that until now, it is unclear which factors result in this trend (Zamboanga et al., 2012). This is irrespective of the current researches that focus on examining the influence of beliefs on the same among the students participating in sport activities.  

Some experts suggest expectancy theory to be one of the factors that influence alcohol consumption among students participating in sport activities. They argue that students that expect favorable outcomes from alcohol consumption are likely to consume alcohol than their counterparts that do not approve such belief (Zamboanga et al., 2012). The idea is that students taking part in sport activities that expect they would improve their sports’ outcomes from consuming alcohol tend to consume alcohol than students that do not endorse such belief. This idea also applies to other drugs; thus, increases the chances of participating in risky behaviors among the students that hold this belief (Guest, & McRee, 2009). While this is not the only cause of involvement in risky behaviors among students participating in sport activities, it is one of the major factors. The expectancy theory has two outcomes, and the first outcome is that positive expectancy increases the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. The second outcome suggests a decrease in involvement in risky behaviors. Apart from the expectancy outcomes from this theory, expectancy valuation is also an outcome from the expectancy theory. This outcome focuses on the effect of the perceived outcome resulting from an activity. According to utility and social learning theories, people engage in behaviors they expect some outcomes from them (Zamboanga et al., 2012). In addition, people engage in such behaviors depending on the desirability of the outcomes resulting from the anticipated outcomes. These theories link closely to the third stage of the Kohlberg’s stages of moral development theory the researcher applies at a later stage of this study. The study of students’ valuation of expected outcomes from involvement in risky behaviors is important because it helps in understanding the influence of sport participation among the students. This study is also important because it demonstrates the applicability of the Kohlberg’s stages of moral development theory, and the utility theory together with social learning theory among the students.                    

This study applies the Kohlberg’s stages of moral development theory in its evaluation of the research question. Lawrence Kohlberg developed this theory, and since the time he developed it, the theory has been applicable in various cases even though some experts challenge it (Niekerk, 2014). This theory evaluates the six stages that apply in making moral decisions within three levels. The first and second stages fall under the first level known as pre-conventional level, the third and fourth stages fall under the second level known as conventional level while the fifth and sixth stages fall under the third level known as post-conventional level. The first stage relates to punishment and obedience, and it is usually applicable to young children as they develop their mind and behaviors. This theory argues that at this stage, children are responsive to cultural labels and rules of the right and wrong as well as the good and bad, but they interpret these labels and rules in terms of the consequences of their actions. Accordingly, children base their moral decisions on what authority considers being right to avoid punishment (Garz, 2009). The second stage relates to relativism meaning that children no longer consider one source of authority in making their decisions. Instead, they view issues as relative; thereby they consider their own interests as well as the interests of other people when making ethical decisions (Niekerk, 2014). Nonetheless, as they do this, children concentrate much on their own interests as opposed to the interests of other people. The elements of reciprocity, equal sharing, and fairness usually applies at this stage with loyalty to one authority failing to apply as it applies in the first stage. At this point, it would be important to note that children do not look upon one source of authority because they consider the relativity of issues. Before evaluating the third stage of this theory, it would be worthwhile to note that the second level of this theory deals with individuals that consider the maintenance of the prospects of their groups, families or nations as valuable in their own right irrespective of their immediate consequences. In addition, the attitude that dominates this level is that of conformity together with loyalty through active support to justify order and identify with the people in the group. The adolescence stage that students falls in is part of this level, and it is in the third stage. Consequently, the third stage that relates to interpersonal concordance bases its moral decisions on what pleases other people and what those people approve (Garz, 2009). This understanding is important in this study because it helps in evaluating the way students behave when they participate in sport activities. As indicated before, participation in sport activity has both positive and negative consequences. Therefore, this theory will be instrumental in this study in evaluating the peer influences.    

The fourth stage entails law and order, whereby people orient towards authority, social order, and fixed rules, meaning that behaving in the right way involves showing respect to the authority, maintaining social order, and doing one’s duty. In other words, the emphasis is on maintaining the societal orders by obeying the law. The fifth stage entails orientation to the social contract meaning that people base their moral decisions on general standards set in the society. At this stage, people understand that differing opinions exist in the society concerning the right and the wrong, and that law exists as a social contract with majority decision being its basis. Accordingly, people might behave in contrast to the law when uncomfortable with it, as a way of suggesting for its amendment (Niekerk, 2014). The sixth stage entails orientation to universal ethics, and because of its complexity, very few people operate at this stage. The basis of this stage is abstract reasoning as well as the ability to consider other people in making ethical decision by putting oneself in their shoes. Those people operating at this stage have principled conscience that helps them follow collective ethical principles irrespective of the official rules and laws.  

With respect to the group of people in this study, the third stage of this theory is the most important stage in this study. The stage deals with adolescents, and claims that individuals falling in this stage try as much as possible to conform to the groups’ standards to avoid disapproval from their colleagues (Garz, 2009). This aspect would be important in evaluating the conformity of the students that participate in sport activities to the groups they belong to or join in sports. In other words, if students participating in sport activities engage in risky behaviors, then those joining them are likely to engage in those behaviors for conformity and approval purposes. At the same time, it is likely that students engaging in sport activities will behave in a particular way to identify themselves because of the same purposes. Accordingly, the students engaging in sports will behave in one way. As applied to this study, I would expect the students joining or belonging to the sport clubs to conform to the behaviors of their counterparts in the clubs. On one hand, I expect participation in sport activities to protect students against engaging in risky behaviors if the students in the club do not engage in risky behaviors. On the other hand, I expect participation in sport activities to increase the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors if the students in the club engage in risky behaviors (Vest, & Simpkins, 2013).

Problem Statement

Given the social problems facing the USA today, the rate at which students engage in risky behaviors is a major concern to parents, government, and other stakeholders in the education sector. As a result, researchers’ interest in evaluating youth violence, especially those in high schools has intensified over the last few decades. Majority of these researches demonstrate an increase in the rate at which students in high schools engage in risky behaviors. Some researches suggest this rate has something to do with participation in sports while other researches contrast this suggestion (Vest, & Simpkins, 2013). While this is the case, experts in this field of study develop different theories to explain the issue, but they have not come to a consensus on the same. In relation to this problem, we need more understanding on how and why the rate at which students engage in risky behaviors has been on the rise despite the effort to curb the same (Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2014). This study comes at the right time when the need to understand theoretical explanations on the same has intensified. Accordingly, this study will be influential in guiding future researches and suggesting the way forward.    

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this correlational study is to test the third stage of the Kohlberg’s stages of moral development theory that relates adolescent behaviors to conformation to approved behaviors among the group. The criterion variable will be the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors while the predictor variables will include drug abuse, violation of schools’ codes of conduct, suicidal thoughts, and sexual conduct among the students that participate in sport activities. In order to test the influence of sport participation in influencing the students taking part in risky behaviors, this study will control the predictor variables that increase the chances of engaging in risky behaviors among the students taking part in sports. By controlling these variables, the study will be able to determine the influences of these variables among these students (Budescu, 1993). This is in relation to the fact that there has been little information regarding this issue because of the diversity of researches in this field of study.    

 

Significance of the Study

Taking place in the Alabama state, this study will be instrumental in advancing the current literature regarding youth involvement in risky behaviors in the USA. The study will be beneficial to parents, government, and other stakeholders in the education sector because it will enrich their understanding in this area. At the same time, even though the study’s results will not be applicable to the entire USA, the study will give an insight of what happens when students engage in sports; thus, help in taking the right steps towards curbing youths’ involvement in risky behaviors.   

Research Questions

In relation to the study’s purpose and problem statement, the following will be the research questions for the study.

RQ1: Does participation in sports have anything to do with engaging in risky behaviors among the grade 10-12 students?

RQ2: Does gender influence the involvement in risky behaviors among the grade 10-12 students that participate in sport activities?

Hypotheses

The following are the corresponding null and alternative hypotheses for the study, and they are in line with the above research questions.

H01: There will be no statistical significant relationship between participation in sport activities and involvement in risky behaviors among the grade 10-12 students.   

H11: There will be a statistical significant relationship between participation in sport activities and involvement in risky behaviors among the grade 10-12 students.   

H02: There will be no statistical significant relationship between sport participation and involvement in risky behaviors among the male and female students.

H22: There will be a statistical significant relationship between sport participation and involvement in risky behaviors among the male and female students.

Identification of Variables

The likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors will be the criterion variable because it will depend on various predictor variables that influence the behaviors of the students so long as they participate in sports. Accordingly, participation in sport activities will be neither the criterion nor the predictor variable, but it will form the population from which the sample of the students will come from (Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2014). On the other hand, the predictor variables will include drug abuse among the students, sexual conduct, suicidal thoughts, and violation of the school’s codes of conduct. The peer literature demonstrates these predictor variables as being influential in youth involvement in risky behaviors (Vest, & Simpkins, 2013).

Definitions

Criterion variable: The variable that demonstrates the presumed effect in the study. In this study, this variable will be the likelihood to engage in risky behaviors.   

Predictor variable: The variable presumed to be the cause of effect in a study. The variable predicts the criterion variable. In this study, these variables will include drug abuse, sexual conduct, school violence, and violation of school’s codes of conduct.     

Control variable: A variable that a researcher does not examine in the study though it helps in understanding other variables.

Kohlberg’s stages of moral development theory: This is a theory that tries to explain the various stages that people use in making moral decisions. The theory has six stages with the third stage being the most applicable stage in this study because students fall under adolescents. The third stage claims that adolescents make moral decision based on the approval or disapproval they receive from their counterparts as well as based on the loyalty to the group.   

Research Summary

In relation to the goal of this study, this study will be a quantitative study that will utilize the multiple regression analysis technique in evaluating the relationship between the criterion and predictor variables (Tyne et al., 2012). The goal will be to establish whether participation in sport activities is a predictive factor of involvement in risky behaviors among the students. Theoretically, the third stage of the Kohlberg’s stages of moral development theory suggests that students will engage in risky behaviors to maintain their social status so long as their counterparts engage in the same. At the same time, students will engage in risky behaviors so long as their counterparts approve those behaviors. Even though sport activities are examples of social contexts among the students, the influence of participating in sport activities among the students that engage in risky behaviors remain unclear (Vest, & Simpkins, 2013). In this regard, the study evaluates the influence that participating in sports has on students in engaging in risky behaviors. The aim is to determine whether participation in sports is a predictive factor of engaging in risky behaviors among the students in Alabama State.  

Assumptions and Limitations

Given that this study is one of the sensitive studies to the students, it is unlikely that even after signing the consent and confidential letters, students will be willing to give accurate information. In other words, it is likely that students will not express themselves fully when answering sensitive questions regarding drug abuse and other issues. This possibility is one of the study’s limitations, and in response to it, the researcher will rely heavily on the information the students will provide and treat it as accurate. Another limitation that relates closely with the first one is the likelihood of the students skipping some questions they consider sensitive to them as they respond to questions posed to them by interviewers. In this regard, the students’ willingness to answer all questions will be of great importance to the researcher. These two limitations could potentially affect the results of the study, and in this regard, the researcher will proceed will the study on the assumption that students will be willing to answer questions and answer them accurately.     

Chapter 3: METHODOLOGY

The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether sport participation among the students serves as a predictive factor of engaging in risky behaviors among the students that participate in sport activities. Accordingly, this study evaluates different factors that serve as predictor factors of involvement in risky behaviors among the youths and especially those in high schools. In this response, multiple regressions will be an effective tool in this study because apart from considering the influence of each factor, it will consider the influence of all factors combined together. This technique helps in predicting the criterion variables from their relationships with the predictor variables (Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2014). The following is an overview of what will happen in the process of the analysis.  

Design

The prediction design, which is one of the correlational designs, will apply in this study because of its capacity to predict the correlation between the criterion and predictor variables. This design will involve utilizing the predictor variables in predicting the criterion variable, which in this case will be the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors. Accordingly, the researcher will control the predictor variables that influence the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors among the students that participate in sport activities. This design will be effective in controlling the predictor variables in the process of analyzing the data. At the same time, it will be effective in determining the form of relationship, type of association and direction of the relationship between the variables. In addition, correlational design will be effective in determining the degree of relationship and existence of extreme values (Budescu, 1993). The design will also involve the scatter plots that are instrumental in providing the visual depictions of the data under analysis.         

Questions and Hypotheses

The research questions and hypotheses in chapter one will be applicable in this chapter, and they will be as it follows.

RQ1: Does participation in sports have anything to do with engaging in risky behaviors among the grade 10-12 students?

RQ2: Does gender influence the involvement in risky behaviors among the grade 10-12 students that participate in sport activities?

The following are the corresponding null and alternative hypotheses for the study, and they are in line with the above research questions.

H01: There will be no statistical significant relationship between participation in sport activities and involvement in risky behaviors among the grade 10-12 students.  

H11: There will be a statistical significant relationship between participation in sport activities and involvement in risky behaviors among the grade 10-12 students.  

H02: There will be no statistical significant relationship between sport participation and involvement in risky behaviors among the male and female students.

H22: There will be a statistical significant relationship between sport participation and involvement in risky behaviors among the male and female students.

Participants

The research participants will come from grade 10, grade 11, and grade 12 students, and the selection process of the student will take place based on the students’ participation in school-sponsored sports. In other words, the sample will include only those students that participate in any kind of sport offered in schools. This will happen because the interest of the study is on the students that take part in sport activities. As a result, students that do not take part in the sport activities will not serve any purpose in the study; thereby they will not be part of the sample. At the same time, the sample will comprise both male and female students without favoring any gender; thus, if possible the sample will comprise 50 percent male students and 50 percent female students. This will help in evaluating the influence of gender in involvement in risky behaviors among the students. However, the violation of this rule does not mean that the higher percentage of one gender will not give the desired results. Instead, the variation in gender percentages will be of no influence on the outcomes meaning that the study will depend on the percentages that will be available (Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2014). With respect to participation in sports, the number of sports that a student plays will not be of any importance; thus, a student that participates in one sport activity, and a student that participates in different sport activities will all be eligible in the study.

Setting

The selection process of the research participants will take place from the rural setting of the Alabama state. This will involve identifying students from their schools and recruiting them into the study. The study will not include the real names of the students in its analysis. Instead, if need be, the study will identify students with numbers without referring to their schools. Both survey and online methods will be applicable in this study. The survey method will involve identifying students during the sport days or any other time and interviewing them face to face. The online method, on the other hand, will involve sending the questionnaire online to the identified students and requesting them to fill them online (Linville, & Huebner, 2005). Unlike the face-to-face method, the online method will not involve direct interview. Therefore, the number of these responses will be minimal to reduce the influence of responding to the questions in groups or consulting one another when responding to the research questions. On the other hand, despite the fact that the results of the study will be applicable in Alabama State only, the results will be a representative of what is happening in other American schools. This will be the case because the Alabamian schools are representative of the American population by the fact that majority of the students in these schools are white, 20 percent African-American students and about one percent of the rest come from other races (Dodge, & Lambert, 2009).

Instrumentation

The study will utilize the school pride survey to measure drug abuse and other unruly behaviors among the students. Another instrument used in this study is the information now school base system. This instrument is a web-based system that stores the attendance, discipline, and academic information for each student. The state of Alabama from which the students come from utilizes this data system in managing student affairs. Therefore, the researcher will use this instrument to measure the students’ academic, discipline, and attendance.   

Procedures

The first procedure in this study will involve identifying the topic and presenting it to the IRB for approval. Once the IRB approves the topic, the researcher will identify the various attributes applicable in the study and develop the questionnaire. The researcher will use the developed questionnaire to conduct a pilot study in one of the neighboring schools. This study will guide the overall study in asking questions, analyzing the data, and preparing beforehand. Accordingly, it will be an important part of the study; thus, the researcher will not ignore it. After conducting the pilot study, the researcher will prepare a confidential letter together with a consent letter that will help in colleting the data from the students and schools. In this case, the students together with their parents will sign the consent letter and confidential letter. The rationale behind these letters will be to help in collecting accurate information from the students by committing the researcher to treating the information as confidential once collected (Hirschfield, & Gasper, 2011). The researcher will then proceed to identify the schools together with the students that will take part in the study. The identification process will involve approaching the schools’ management teams and informing them about the study to give the researcher the go ahead to collect data from their schools. Once the school management teams allow the researcher to collect data from the schools, the researcher will approach the game masters in the respective schools. The game masters will then inform the students about the study and request them to participate in the study once requested by the researcher to do so. At this point, the students together with their parents will sign the consent letters and confidential letters. The school management boards will also sign the confidential letters committing themselves not to violate the students’ rights in the exercise once they allow the researcher to collect data from their schools. After this, the researcher will collect surveys from the identified students in closed rooms that will not be accessible to anybody else except the person collecting the data and the identified students. During the data collection process, the students will have the right to ask questions before responding to the question they consider sensitive to them. If the students will not be comfortable in answering the questions, the researcher will not compel them to answer those questions (Fredricks, & Eccles, 2008).      

Data analysis

The researcher will use the multiple regression analysis in the study to determine the relationship between the different variables. This technique is effective in analyzing the relationship between the criterion variable and the various predictor variables that influence the criterion variable (Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2014). Accordingly, the researcher will use this technique to establish the relationship between the likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, which is the criterion variable in this study, and the various predictor variables of engaging in risky behaviors among the students that participate in sport activities. When presenting the results of the study using this technique graphically, the criterion variable appears on the y-coordinate while the predictor variables appear on the x-coordinate. On the other hand, it is also possible to present these variables in an equation format other than presenting them graphically (Budescu, 1993). Either of the two methods is helpful in determining the relationship between the two variables. The researcher will also use the hierarchical regression procedure. This technique will involve introducing the predictor variables in the regression analysis in steps other than introducing them simultaneously. The aim of doing this is to establish the influence of individual variables in relation to the relationship the criterion variables have with the predictor variables. This technique will illustrate the influence of each variable in the study, and if possible help in making the right decision. Together with these techniques, the researcher will use the Pearson r test. This test will measure the direction of association of the variables in the study as well as the linear relationship between the variables. The range of the Pearson r test will be -1.0 to +1.0. A positive value will indicate a positive relationship between the variables, whereby the higher the value the stronger the linear relationship, and vice versa. On the contrary, a negative value will indicate a negative relationship between the variables. A value of zero will indicate no relationship between the variables (Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2014).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Brown, D. et al. (2007). Physical activity, sport participation, and suicidal behavior: U.S. high school students. Med sci sports exerc, 39(12), 2248-2257.

Budescu, D. (1993). Dominance analysis: a new approach to the problem of relative importance of predictors in multiple regressions. Psychological bulletin, 114(3), 542-551.

Cohen, P., West, S., & Aiken, L. (2014). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral science. New Jersey: Psychology press.

Dodge, T., & Lambert, S. (2009). Positive self-belief as a mediator of the relationship between adolescents’ sports participation and health in young adulthood. J youth adolescence, 38, 813-825.   

Feldman, A., & Matjasko, J. (2005). The role of school-based extracurricular activities in adolescent development: a comprehensive review and future directions. Review of Educational Research Summer, 75(2), 159-210.

Fredricks, J., & Eccles, J. (2008). Participation in extracurricular activities in the middle school years: are there developmental benefits for African American and European American youth? J youth adolescence, 37, 1029-1043.

Garz, D. (2009). Lawrence Kohlberg: An introduction. Opladen: Barbara Budrich Publication.

Guest, A., & McRee, N. (2009). A school-level analysis of adolescent extracurricular activity, delinquency, and depression: the importance of situational context. J Youth Adolescence, 38, 51-62.

Hirschfield, P., & Gasper, J. (2011). The relationship between school engagement and delinquency in late childhood and early adolescence. J youth adolescence, 40, 3-22. 

Kort-Butler, L., & Hagewen, K. (2011). School-Based extracurricular activity involvement and adolescent self-esteem: a growth-curve analysis. J Youth Adolescence, 40, 568–581.

Linville, D., & Huebner, A. (2005). The analysis of extracurricular activities and their relationship to youth violence. Journal of youth and adolescence, 34(5), 483-492.

Niekerk, P. (2014). Teachers and moral development of learners: a case for a Kohlbergian and neuroscience approach. Mediterranean journal of social science, 5(4), 340-347.  

Simpkins, S. et al. (2012). Do school friends participate in similar extracurricular activities? Examining the moderating role of race/ethnicity and age. Journal of Leisure Research, 44(3), 332-352.

Taliaferro, L., Rienzo, B., & Donovan, K. (2010). Relationship between youth sport participation and selected health risk behaviors from 1999 to 2007. Journal of school health, 80(8), 399-410.

Taliaferro, L. et al. (2008). High school youth and suicide risk: exploring protection afforded through physical activity and sport participation. Journal of school health, 78(10), 545-553. 

Tok, S. (2011). The big five personality traits and risky sport participation. Social behavior and personality, 39(8), 1105-1112.

Tyne, K. et al. (2012).Drinking motives as mediators of the associations between alcohol expectancies and risky drinking behaviors among high school students. Cogn ther res, 36, 756-767.  

Vest, A., & Simpkins, S. (2013). When is sport participation risky or protective for alcohol use? The role of teammates, friendships, and popularity. Organized Out-of-School Activities: Settings for Peer Relationships. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 140, 37–55. 

Zamboanga, B. et al. (2012). Alcohol expectancies and risky drinking behaviors among high school athletes: “I’d rather keep my head in the game” Prev Sci, 13, 140-149.

 

 

  

 

 

 

 

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Sample Report Paper on The proposed reward system and strategy for the big city university

A good reward system should motivate workers. It should also attract and retain the same workers. On the contrary, a bad reward system does not do either of these things....
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Management of PCOS through Homoeopathy-A case report

Introduction PCOS is the acronym for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. It is the most common endocrine disorder of women in their reproductive period manifested by irregular menstrual cycles and polycystic ovaries,...
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