Open Always
Email: support@globalcompose.com Call Now! +1-315 515-4588
Open Always
Email: support@globalcompose.com Call Now! +1-315 515-4588

Sample Research Paper on Japanese Air Pollution Policy

This sample paper on (Sample Research Paper on Japanese Air Pollution Policy) was uploaded by one our contributors and does not necessarily reflect how our professionals write our papers. If you would like this paper removed from our website, please contact us our Contact Us Page.

A Database of over Million Scholarly Resources. Start your Search Now

Sample Research Paper on Japanese Air Pollution Policy

Introduction

To diminish air pollution in the metropolitan regions of Japan, a range of pollution policies has been located on stationary sources, like the automobiles.  This has resulted in successful reduction of sulfur dioxide.  However, nitrogen oxides (NOx) levels never advanced through the 1980s.  The escalating emissions from mobile source were argued to be the main reason.  In an effort to respond to this problem, the Japanese government initiated the Automobile Nitrogen Oxide Regulation Law in June 1992 that was meant to control emissions of the automobile (Larsen et al., 1920).  This policy focused on the metropolitan regions of Osaka, Tokyo and Nagoya, which were selected as regions of nonattainment. 

Regardless of these attempts, the nitrogen oxides concentration in metropolitan areas did not recover in the 1990s.  In 1998, only 44 percent of the roadside air pollution screening stations had met the national ambient of air quality for nitrogen oxide.  The attainment of the environmental policy for particulate matter (PM) was even poorer.  Only 37 percent of the roadside air pollution screening stations attained the standards of ambient air quality standard for particulate matter in 1998.  The cause of these failures is believed to be the intense usage of diesel trucks.  Given these circumstances, the automobile nitrogen oxides-particulate matter law (NOx-PM Law), which was an adjusted version of the automobile Nitrogen Oxide Regulation Law, was endorsed in 2001.  The new law is meant to minimize the Particulate Matter concentration as well as Nitrogen Oxides in the nonattainment regions.

The Nitrogen Oxides-Particulate Matter Law has a provision known as the vehicle type policy.  This policy disallows he registration and use of automobiles in the nonattainment areas, after specific periods, unless the automobiles meets the 2005 emissions policy, which has been defined in the law.  This emissions policy is tougher than the earlier standards.  The Nitrogen Oxides-Particulate Matter Law is unique in implementing the regulation on those vehicles that are presently used.  Most policies on vehicles are imposed on newly sod vehicles or those used by consumers.  For instance, under the previous laws, tougher emissions policies were applicable to new cars only.  Those who owned old vehicles having polluting emissions were not penalized for using their dirty vehicles.  The policy is known as vehicle type policy since the timing of the ban is dependent on the first year of registration and the type of vehicle.  For example, a standard diesel truck that was registered in 1990 was disallowed in the nonattainment areas in 2005, whereas a diesel car that was registered in 2004 could be in use until 2005.

How was the timing of the ban determined?  The Ministry of Communications and Internal Affairs performs policy impact analysis in Japan.  An ex-post assessment of the Nitrogen Oxides-Particulate Matter Law by the Ministry shows that there was no policy cost estimates.  Thus, the ban timing for every vehicle type for every registration year was selected with no analysis of efficiency or cost.

The policy of vehicle type shows an example of a commanding and controlling approach toward the problems of air pollution.  Economic theory forecast that commanding and controlling policies do not essentially get the most out of the social welfare because there is no mechanism of price to support efficiency among polluters.  Conversely, economic theory asserts that economic incentives like the pollution tax may maximize the social benefit (Lahiri and Ono, 110).  Nevertheless, the introduction of such tax is usually unworkable politically.  Even if a tax is initiated, the amount of tax is usually lower than secondary externality cost (SEC), which is essential to maximize the social benefit.

This research recommends a third avenue.  We investigate the extent to which regulator can elevate social benefit by carrying out a cautious e-ante regulatory impact examination of alternative regulations or policies.  Even though Arimura and Iwata established that the benefit the present policy of vehicle type exceeds the cost, they established that there are variations in secondary abatement cost across polluters (Iwata and Arimura, 157).  This means that an alternative policy could have attained better social benefit just by implementing various enforcement timing.  In this research, we investigate how changes in years of ban for every vehicle type can elevate the social benefit.  Therefore, were confine the scope of the study to practical alternative commanding and controlling type policies.

Various studies have investigate the withdrawal of old vehicles as a policy of air pollution control.  Lumbreras et al. (2008, 647) reveal, with their model, that the revitalization of old vehicles is a competent way, among other policies, of controlling air pollution issues.  This paper contains the first study to investigate an obligatory retirement program.  Section 2 gives the outline of vehicle type policy together with the background.  It is then followed in section 3 by the component of model that estimates the regulation cost.  Section 4 outlines the model to assess the reduction benefits of the emissions due to the policy.  The solution is described in section 5 with discussion and the last part makes conclusion of the paper.

2.0 Background of the NOx-PM Law and the Compliance Methods

            The law of Nitrogen Oxides-Particulate Law dwelling in Japan has its own special way of enforcing prior replacement of all vehicles that are older with brand new ones, which comply with the new stringent standards of emissions.  The law has set the emissions of the year 2005 as the target and has termed it as the most of the stringiest standards of emissions for Nitrogen Oxides-Particulate Law up to date.  The policy also bans the use of older vehicles together with its registration in the set nonattainment fields unless they gratify the law of the year 2005 concerning the emissions standard.  For instance, the standard trucks, which were first sold in 1990, cannot be registered after the year 2005. 

The category of the vehicle will determine the duration of a ban.  Firstly, the vehicles are put into different categories: buses, trucks, passenger cars, and special use vehicles.  Each category is then divided further into small size and standard size.  Lastly, the vehicles that are used by passengers are then subdivided into two groups.  This depends with the level of required legal inspections.  However, some of these passenger cars are only inspected once per year while others are inspected every two years.  This results to 10 groups of vehicles. 

To add to that, the vehicle’s first year registration will also, determine the time of a ban.  For instance, the vehicles that were registered before 2003 risk the ban if they do not gratify the target of 2005 emissions.  Those who own old vehicles have varying alternatives in regard to the methods of compliance.  One of these methods is; the owners of these old cars can just retire their old cars without asking for a replacement.  The Automobile Manufacturers of Japan (AMJ) carried out a survey and the results showed that only a few owners of vehicles retired their cars in exchange for trucks.  Another choice for a compliance method is that, the owners of these old vehicles could choose to replace their old vehicles with brand new ones which gratify the stringent emissions standards.  Another result received from the AMJ survey is that most people who own trucks prefer to buy the same type of brand vehicles that are compliant with the regulation. 

            This particular paper centers on the replacement with brand new vehicles which are of the same type and which are complying with the new policy. Under the Nitrogen Oxides-Particulate Law, the trucks that consume diesel are the most affected by this new policy.  It has been discovered that trucks that use diesel together with passenger cars have so far faced less stringent emissions objectives for year while those passenger vehicles, which consume gasoline, satisfy the stringent emissions law quite relatively.  This is why most of the remaining old trucks have to be replaced with new ones.  Not to forget, a small percentage of passenger cars must be replaced as well.  The main reason for this is that the standards for emissions were already strict even in the 1990’s.            

3.0 Policy Cost

Subsequent to the discussion above, this study focuses on replacement with vehicles that are new as the method of compliance.  The study calculates the policy cost in the following steps.  Firstly, for every year of registration and every type of vehicle, and the research spot the number of vehicles facing the requirement of replacement.  Secondly, the paper continues to compute the cost of the policy per vehicle type.  Lastly, we compute costs over the years and types of vehicle.

3.1 Regulated Vehicles Identification

This research made use of the Study of Automobile Possession (SAP) by the Automobile Registration and Inspection Association to acquire the information on the vehicles, which were registered in the month of March 2003.  In the Survey of Automobile Possession, approximately 3.8 million vehicles exclusive of gasoline passenger cars were established in the nonattainment regions.  For every vehicle, we examined the year of registration and the type of vehicle.  Additionally, we confirmed if the intensity of emission of every vehicle that is registered meet the standards of 2005.  If not so, the vehicle then faces this regulation.  Table 1 shows the number of vehicles that are subject to the requirement of retirement for every type of vehicle on the nonattainment regions in 2003.  The sum number is about 2.6 million vehicles.

 

Table 1: Number of vehicles regulated

Type of Vehicle

Standard

Small

Standard

Small

Standard

Small

Standard

Small

Standard

Small

Total

Truck

Bus

Special use

Passenger Car

 

 

Every two year

Every one year

Every 2 year

 

 

580,190

892,416

27,528

18,002

258,383

32,632

3,148

3,592

357,972

406,771

2,580,634

 

3.2 Cost of Compliance per Vehicle

The cost of compliance due to the policy can be described as the difference between the cost without and with the policy.  Figure 1 illustrates the policy’s effects on the owners of the vehicles.  Without this regulation, a type m vehicle may be used for an average period of Lm years.  However, the regulation enforces this replacement at year Trm for a vehicle type m with r as the first year of regulation.  This regulation cuts down the vehicles life by Yrm, which means minimized years.  Since the minimized year is a function of Lm and Trm, we indicate it as Yrm (Lm Trm).  Under the present regulation, replacement-timing Trm is described as in the Table 1 above.

This research changes Trm in order to maximize the regulation net benefit.  In approximating the cost of regulation, we make use of the outline by Oka (Oka et al., 46).  The researches by Automobile Manufacturers of Japan (AMJ) show that most of the owners do not change the type of vehicle when replacing.  As a result, we can comfortably suppose that the vehicles users and owners do not change the type of vehicle.  Further, we presume that the prices of the vehicle are regular over time despite the regulation.  We capitalize on Oka et al. (2007) approach by adding up the profit from the affected vehicles sales.  The vehicle owner can sell their vehicles to the markets of used cars in attainment regions when they are subjected to the mandatory retirement in the regions of nonattainment.  The regulation forces the owners of the vehicles to sell their vehicles in advance than otherwise.  The early sale of the used vehicles boosts the profit since newer cars have an advanced cost in the market.  Consequently, we can describe the cost of compliance as the difference between and extra cost of replacement and extra profit on sale.

Figure 1: Replacement Timing

We shall first identify the replacement cost.  We compute the compliance cost at the replacement timing.  Let Pmw be the buying price of vehicle type m having weight w.  We have the weight w information since the prices of the vehicles vary by weight even for similar type of vehicle.  We presume that the prices do not change over a certain period.  With this policy in place, the replacement cost is equivalent to Pmw , and it is the price of the new vehicle, at the time of replacement.  The vehicle replaced would be used for Yrm (Lm Trm) more years if it were not for the regulation.  Let a stand for the interest rate.  Then the cost of replacement without the regulation, assessed during the ban period, is the current discounted value of the price of a new vehicle, that is Pmw exp( − a ×Yrm ) Hence, the cost of replacement Crtmrmw  of vehicle type m that is outlawed   in tear Trm is expressed as:

Crtmrmw = Pmw [1-exp {-a × Yrm (Trm,Lm)}]    

            Second, we describe the profit sales to the market of used cars.  The owners of the vehicles trade their old vehicles to the markets of used cars Yrm (Lm Trm) years in advance with the policy than without.  As there is a negative connection between age and the price of the vehicle, the owners achieve the profit during the sale by trading them with the regulation.  Consequently, we use the annually average rate of depreciation Srm of type of vehicle m to include the connection between age and price of vehicle in our model.  For instance, they show that the annually average rate of depreciation for a standard truck is 25.6 percent. 

            The study will proceed to define the profit from the sales to the market of used cars.  The owners trade their vehicles to used car markets Yrm (Lm, Trm) years in advance with this regulation than without it.  As there is a negative correlation age and the price of the vehicle, the owners achieve the profit on trade by trading them having the regulation.  Consequently, we make use of the annually rate of depreciation Srm of vehicle type m to include the connection between age and the price of the vehicle into our model.  For instance, they identify that the annually average rate of depreciation for a standard truck is 25.6 percent.  We projected Lm  by using the registration data of 2000 to eliminate the influence of the Nitrogen Oxides Particulate Matter Law, which was enforced in 2001.  The results are as shown in Table 2 below.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: Remaining life Without the Regulation

Vehicle Age (u)

 

Vehicle type

Standard

Small

Standard

Small

Standard

Small

Standard

Small

Standard

Small

 

 

Truck

 

Bus

 

Special use

 

Passenger car

 

Inspection

Every two year

 

 

Every one year

Every two year

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

 

15.21

14.30

13.45

12.52

11.63

10.74

9.94

9.12

8.38

7.70

7.13

11.85

10.87

9.96

9.05

8.26

7.59

7.16

6.64

6.21

5.93

5.57

15.21

14.30

13.45

12.52

11.63

10.74

9.94

9.12

8.38

7.70

7.13

11.85

10.87

9.96

9.05

8.26

7.59

7.16

6.64

6.21

5.93

5.57

15.21

14.30

13.45

12.52

11.63

10.74

9.94

9.12

8.38

7.70

7.13

11.85

10.87

9.96

9.05

8.26

7.59

7.16

6.64

6.21

5.93

5.57

14.08

13.41

12.19

11.29

10.50

9.52

8.77

7.86

7.22

6.42

5.94

11.67

10.69

9.73

8.82

8.04

7.11

6.45

5.61

5.07

4.36

4.10

14.08

13.41

12.19

11.29

10.50

9.52

8.77

7.86

7.22

6.42

5.94

11.67

10.69

9.73

8.82

8.04

7.11

6.45

5.61

5.07

4.36

4.10

 

3.3 Total replaced vehicles

Table 1 identifies the total number of vehicles in 2003 that never complied with emission standards of 2005.  However, some of these vehicles will not be affected by the regulation of vehicle type for 2 reasons.  One, some of the vehicles would be replaced in advance before they are subjected to the terminal years for other reasons like accidents or mechanical failure as a normal part of replacement process.  We deem this as natural replacement.

For instance, there were 580,190 standard trucks in 2003, which had the initial registration year of 1990, in the nonattainment regions, and were not compliant with the emission standards of 2005.  When they were subjected to the 2005 ban, however 70,948 of them would be replaced because of the natural replacement practice.  Thus, only 511,242 vehicles would be subjected to 2005 ban.  Also, a small section of the owners retire their vehicles without procuring another one when they face the registration ban by the type of vehicle registration.  Because AMJ provide the data on standard and small trucks only, we suppose that the rates of repurchasing for special use cars and buses are the same as trucks.

 

 

3.4 Total Cost Calculation

We compute the cost of compliance for every type of vehicle, first year of regulation, region and weight by year.  Then we compute the cost of compliance over these machineries and calculate the discounted current value of the cost assessed at 2004.  Subsequent to the previous research, we presume that all vehicles are retired after ten years.  Therefore, all vehicles traded before the tough emissions standard will retire by 2015.  We use a rate of 3 percent to compute the total cost of repurchasing vehicles.  The overall cost of the present regulation was $300 billion.

3.5 Cost Estimate Discussion

This study also remarks on all the cost estimates done.  First and foremost, the maintenance cost in sums is not included in the analysis.  This is because this point could not be incorporated due to limitations of data.  This further means that the cost of maintenance costs for old vehicles will reduce if the cost of maintaining a vehicle will increase with increase in age of all vehicles.  It is therefore most probable that our estimated cost may be or are higher than the real cost of maintenance.

            Secondly, other companies may use newer vehicles more often than older cars and this means that there will be a higher fuel economy since newer cars have a bigger economy of fuel consumption.  This therefore means that the cost for vehicle operation will become smaller if the old cars are replaced.  The policy was also not included in the examination because of the restrictions of data. 

To conclude, the analysis did not slot in the replacement of an old car with a used car as a method of compliance since the price old vehicles is not available.  The study therefore made use of assumptions that all the vehicle users usually replace their old cars with new vehicles.  Alternatively, the vehicle users can purchase used vehicles, which are approved.  The calculations done in this study might also be higher than the true cost since the new ones are more expensive than the old vehicles.  Wrapping up, if there may exist any bias in the results from the study regarding the costs, then we believe that the amount of bias herein is very limited. 

4.0 Benefit: Health Benefit

As the regulation benefit, the study estimates the benefit of health because of emission reduction.  To get the emission reduction, we calculate the emission without and with the regulation.  We have to convert the total vehicles to the emissions via the total kilometers driven.  We shall use the following formula to approximate emissions:

Emissions(g) = (Intensity of Emissions)(g/km) × (Mileage)(km/vehicle) × (Total Numbers of Vehicle)

Note that the type of vehicle regulation reduces the intensity of emissions.  We approximate emissions by type of vehicle, type of fuel, weight because the intensity of the emission depends on these factors.

We focus in a broader view the model represented in Arimura and Iwata (2008).  More particularly, we change the mileage of the vehicle in reference to its age.  

4.1 Emissions with no Regulation

As a baseline, we work out the emission without the regulation of the vehicle type.  The new standards of vehicles emissions have been tougher over the years.  Hence, even without the type of vehicle regulation, emissions will lessen because of the natural replacement practice; vehicles that are old, are replaced with new ones, which have emission intensity that is lower.

4.2 Emissions with the Regulation

Our model reflects on two methods of compliance.  The first method is to dispose the old vehicles without buying new ones.  The other one is to buy new vehicles and sell the old ones.  Thus, there will be a reduction in the total number of vehicles in nonattainment regions owing to the first method of compliance.  If we presume the mileage s constant for every vehicle that is regulated over time in our model, the acceptance of the first method of compliance lessens the number of miles that is driven in the nonattainment regions.  It is doubtful, however, travel demand might decrease due to this regulation.  To address this issue, we increase the number of mileage per vehicle as the total number of vehicles lessens so the overall vehicle mileage is regular over time.

5.0 Discussion

Other people may argue that our finest of all our schedule of retirement is excessively radical to be acceptable to the general public.  In response to this, this particular study was conducted and a simple simulation done with a small transition from the present schedule of retirement.  The retirement of vehicles was postponed for all passenger vehicles in the year 2005 to the year 2006 and the regulator did the postponing.  This in turn accelerated the retirements of all trucks since 2006 to 2005.  It is estimated that this particular exchange in timing of retirement can boost the net benefit by a good percentage of 13.  The simple simulation discussed above reinstates the significance of quantitative policy evaluations and hence boost the social well being related to environmental policies. 

6. Conclusions

This study empirically digs deep into the efficiency of the vehicle type policies, which were recently put in place in three metropolitan areas in Japan, which were aimed at mitigating the menace of air pollution.  We found out the regulator can boost the social net profit noticeably by changing the time of a ban for a specific type of vehicle.  This will only be so if we can solve the biggest problem of the timing of retirement. 

The set of instruments chosen for this study are narrower than the instruments existing in the ideal world where other instruments can be used to boost the social net benefit.  An example of these kinds of instruments is the emission taxes.  From one end, it is clear that the restriction of other available regulation is dangerous since it does consider the maximum social interests something that other economic instruments can attain.  From another end, this particular restriction has its own significance since it does not alter with the costs of administration used in the available regime as contrasted with the present policy.  We can also say that it ensures the feasibility and the practicality of an alternative regulation as discussed in this study.  A further analysis also showed that a command and control advancement could bring variance in the effectiveness of costs. 

The results from this study show that there are two important points that seem to argue.  This points concern the conducting of the ex-ante regulation evaluation just before the new legislation regulation.  Most significantly, it is important to show manifold feasible go-in-hand plans to give an assurance of high efficiency.  The study further showed that the social profit could be triggered by 104% if only the regulator had chosen the best efficient schedule of lethal years from among the choices.  This is despite the fact that the regulator showed a single schedule of lethal years in the legislation of the Nitrogen Oxides-Particulate Matter law. 

It is this particular fact that shows the importance of comparing between manifold regulation proposals.  The other point is about the significance of quantitative analysis of economics in the ex-ante evaluation policy.  The revision of the Japanese Government Policy Evaluations Act of the year 2007 obliges the regulator to carry out an ex-ante regulation evaluation of the command and control policy.  There are other ways, which can be used to evaluate a policy.  The quantitative economic analyses from this study show that there can be a great difference in the feasible policies efficiency.  This shows that efficiency is a significant indicator that can be used to help in the choosing of a suitable policy from among the many choices presented.  As the study suggests, the regulator should conduct a quantitative economic analysis to serve as the ex-ante regulation. 

There however exists another matter, which is air pollution.  Recently, climatic change has become an important aspect in the regulation of the transport sector.  It is form here that two big issues emerge which need special consideration.  The first thing to put special consideration into is the vehicles whole life cycle.  The replacement of very old vehicles can be accelerated through the acceleration of the speed of retirement with the new vehicles.  If new vehicles are produced during the earlier timing, then there will be an increase in the emission of carbon dioxide in the short run.  However, the emissions change of carbon dioxide over the complete life cycle is narrow because of the retirement that is early.  The discussion concerning the technological trade off reduction existing between Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter and carbon dioxide is also important.  It has been seen that the improvement of the economy of fuel for the bigger trucks is however larger compared to the deterioration effect itself (Nugent and Oliver, 102).  It is because of this that the levels of emissions of carbon dioxide may reduce in overall terms.  As part of advice, the future ex-ante quantitative regulation should be inclusive of the significances of the emissions of carbon dioxide. 

 

 

 

 

 

Work Cited

Iwata, Kazuyuki, and Toshi H Arimura. ‘Economic Analysis Of Japanese Air Pollution

Regulation: An Optimal Retirement Problem Under The Vehicle Type Regulation In The NO< I> X</I>–Particulate Matter Law’. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 14.3 (2009): 157–167. Print.

Lahiri, Sajal, and Yoshiyasu Ono. ‘Relative Emission Standard Versus Tax Under Oligopoly:

The Role Of Free Entry’. Journal of Economics 91.2 (2007): 107–128. Print.

Larsen, Filip J et al. ‘Regulation Of Mitochondrial Function And Energetics By Reactive

Nitrogen Oxides’. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 53.10 (2012): 1919–1928. Print.

Lumbreras, J., M. Valdés, R. Borge, and M. E. Rodríguez. 2008. Assessment of Vehicle

Emissions Projections in Madrid (Spain) from 2004 to 2012 Considering Several Control

Strategies. Transportation Research Part A 42: 646–658.

Oka, Tosihiro et al. ‘Maximum Abatement Costs For Calculating Cost-Effectiveness Of Green

Activities With Multiple Environmental Effects’. Springer (2007): 41–78. Print.

Nugent, Olivia, and Bob Oliver. Primer On Automobile Fuel Efficiency And Emissions. 1st ed.

[Toronto, Ont.?]: Pollution Probe, 2009. Print.

 

 

Sharing is: CARING

Are you looking for homework writing help? Click on Order Now button below to Submit your assignment details.

Homework Writing Help
We Can Help you with this Assignment right now!
Sample Research Paper on Japanese Air Pollution Policy

Are you looking for homework writing help on (Sample Research Paper on Japanese Air Pollution Policy)?Well, you can either use the sample paper provided to write your paper or you could contact us today for an original paper. If you are looking for an assignment to submit, then click on ORDER NOW button or contact us today. Our Professional Writers will be glad to write your paper from scratch.

 

We ensure that assignment instructions are followed, the paper is written from scratch. If you are not satisfied by our service, you can either request for refund or unlimited revisions for your order at absolutely no extra pay. Once the writer has completed your paper, the editors check your paper for any grammar/formatting/plagiarism mistakes, then the final paper is sent to your email.

Privacy| Confidentiality

Sample Research Paper on Japanese Air Pollution Policy

We do not share your personal information with any company or person. We have also ensured that the ordering process is secure; you can check the security feature in the browser. For confidentiality purposes, all papers are sent to your personal email. If you have any questions, contact us any time via email, live chat or our phone number.

Our Clients Testimonials

  • I appreciate help on the assignment. It was hard for me but am good to go now

    Impact of pollution on Environment
  • Am happy now having completed the very difficult assignment

    Creative Message Strategies
  • Your writer did a fine job on the revisions. The paper is now ok

    Ethics: Theory and Practice
  • The paper was so involving but am happy it is done. Will reach you with more assignments

    Title: Privatization in or of America
  • I expected perfection in terms of grammar and I am happy. Lecturer is always on our head but was pleased with my paper. Once again, thanks a lot

    Title: Bundaberg Inquiry
  • The paper looks perfect now, thank to the writer

    Health Care Systems
  • You helped me complete several other tasks as you handled paper. wonna thank you

    Critique Paper on Political Change

Related Articles

Sample Research Paper on Japanese Air Pollution Policy

Analyze the Nursing Roles in providing Comprehensive care in a Variety of Community Health Settings

Community Settings This week’s graded topics relate to the following Course Outcomes (COs). CO3: Plan prevention and population-focused interventions for vulnerable populations using professional clinical judgment and evidence-based practice. (POs...
Read More

Case Study Assignment on Ethical Issues in Asia-Pacific business

Case study assignment on Ethical Issues in Asia-Pacific business For this assignment, students will write a case study report in 2,000 words based on a case identified with circumstance or...
Read More

Sample Report Paper on The proposed reward system and strategy for the big city university

A good reward system should motivate workers. It should also attract and retain the same workers. On the contrary, a bad reward system does not do either of these things....
Read More

Management of PCOS through Homoeopathy-A case report

Introduction PCOS is the acronym for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. It is the most common endocrine disorder of women in their reproductive period manifested by irregular menstrual cycles and polycystic ovaries,...
Read More

Get more from us…

Would you like this sample paper to be sent to your email or would you like to receive weekly articles on how to write your assignments? You can simply send us your request on how to write your paper and we will email you a free guide within 24-36 hours. Kindly subscribe below!

Email Address: support@globalcompose.com