Sample Admission Essay Paper on Cultural and Ethnic Studies

From the texts collected by Lawrence, what were the scope and the extent of the reform in the 1980s?

During the 1980s, china experienced enormous levels of reforms and modernization that went to great extents. After Deng Xiaoping took over leadership, china experienced a revolution in the growth of the economy. This, in turn, transformed several sectors such as the agricultural and industrial (Lawrance 225). The reform in the 1980s led to the introduction of decentralization in the industrial sector hence an increase in the production levels and a reduction in the required capital for small enterprises. Additionally, workers in state-owned enterprises (SOEs) experienced gains. However, the industrial laborers lost their status to bigger entrepreneurs while majorities were denied their lifetime benefits such as pensions (Lawrance 230).

What is the “fifth modernization” and why is it so problematic?

The “fifth modernization” refers to democracy in China. The people of China have not attained democracy yet. However, the formation of the Communist Party, which attained victory over Kuomintang, was for the purpose of fighting for democracy.  The “fifth modernization” also referred to, as democracy is problematic since it faces many kinds of opposition from different kinds of leaders. For instance, Peng Dehuai was plucked out of leadership for failing to follow the instruction from the “Great Leader” (Lawrance 230).

  1. When does the postwar end in Japan? And what exactly ends?

Postwar in Japan ends in 1945. The end of the postwar refers to the time when the United States troops moved out of the Japanese archipelago (Gluck 1). The aggression of the Japanese in China as well as their colonization in Korea comes to an end during the postwar. Their dominance on Pearl Harbor is snatched away from them when they eventually turn to be the victims after they face atomic bombings.  The end of the postwar also brought the power of the emperor to an end, giving a king or queens the power of ruling.



Gluck, Carol. The “End” of the Postwar: Japan at the Turn of the Millennium. NY: Duke University Press, 1997. Print.

Lawrance, Allan. China since 1919: Revolution and Reform: a Sourcebook. London: Psychology Press,  pp 225-244. Print.