Sample Criminal Law Paper on Human Trafficking


Conceptualization of the Vice
Human trafficking is a significant social dilemma facing the current society. It is a crime
that promotes the serious violation of human rights as it thrives on exploiting the vulnerable.
According to the Antislavery.Org (2019), human trafficking can be conceptualized as the
recruitment of people into exploitative scenarios through the use of force and violence, abduction
or deception. As noted by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC] (2019), the
appropriate definition of human trafficking consists of many variables. It is through the close
scrutiny of these variables that both the (2019) and Interpol (2019) conceptualize
human trafficking as modern-day slavery. It thrives on the weak who are lured into
unmanageable conditions against their will.
Human trafficking is a global dilemma affecting almost every country. There are
countries that participate as producers. These are largely the less developed regions with higher
rates of poverty. There are also countries on the opposite end of the spectrum that participate as
consumers. These mostly are composed of the developed nations where people have the ability
to spend on the goods and services provided by human trafficking. However, it is important to
note that the role of any nation in the human trafficking conundrum varies with the specific type
of crime being perpetrated. In an earlier evaluation of the vice by Brewer (2009), it may seem
surprising to many but countries such as the US are also producers. Trafficking activities in the
consumer countries depend on the accepted treatment of the illegals. If the legal system allows
the poor treatment of individuals with illegal status, activities of human trafficking will be on the
rise. This creates a condition that Majeed and Malik (2017) describe as has human trafficking
inflows. The scholars conceptualize this condition as the extent to which abuse and exploitation
of non-citizens are tolerated widely.

Elements of Human Trafficking
Human trafficking consists of three elements. As noted by the UNODC (2019), the first
element behind the crime is the act. The act dwells on what is largely identified as human
trafficking to the majority. It includes the recruitment, transportation, storage, or receiving the
victims of the act. Without proper scrutiny of the elements that comprise this social evil, it is
justified why the act alone can be considered as the whole representation of human trafficking.
While all these aspects do matter, (2019) indicates that it is not all about
transportation. Mere exposure of vulnerable individuals to exploitative conditions counts as
human trafficking without the necessity of transporting them. This, therefore, excels in justifying
why the act is considered as an element of human trafficking. Without it, the other elements
would still contribute to the crime being identified as human trafficking. The second element of
consideration as noted by the UNODC (2019) is the means. The means entail how the crime is
committed. This is the element that entails the use of force and violence through abduction or
any other means of coercion. It also comprises of deception and promising potential victims of
better life to lure them to the desired destination.
The third element of human trafficking as noted by UNODC (2019) is the purpose. The
purpose justifies why it is done and it is through it the potential victims will be identified.
Common reasons for human trafficking include sexual exploitation. Most victims of human
trafficking as noted in most accounts are targeted for sexual exploitation. In the coverage
presented by Brewer (2009), it is the leading factor of human trafficking. Majority of women
from less developed regions are lured into the vice where the money they make is channelled
back into the country of origin. A good example is Thailand that has a booming brothel
economy. As a result, many women are coerced into global prostitution syndicate through human

trafficking. Besides sexual exploitation, the other notable reason for human trafficking is labor
exploitation. Brewer (2009) notes that majority link human trafficking to only sexual
exploitation. However, labor exploitation is also a considerable factor behind human trafficking.
By 2008, Brewer (2009) notes that close to 2.4 billion people across the world were subjects of
forced labor and ended up becoming victims of other exploitations.

Overview of the Dilemma
Human trafficking is a social vice with deep roots in the society. With no strong
initiatives from global bodies and the poor coordination between countries to stop the crime, it
has gradually increased over time. According to the US State Department (2019), there are
currently 24.9 million people who are victims of human trafficking. It is important to note that
the statistics vary from one body to another due to various reasons and are also likely not to truly
paint a clear picture of the crime on the ground. Human trafficking has expanded and the number
of potential victims is expected to be more. For instance, the International Labor Organization
(ILO) as noted by the (2019) estimates that there are approximately 40 million
victims of human trafficking across the world. Close to 80 percent of these victims are exploited
for labor needs. As anticipated, women and girls, accounting for 75 percent, compose the most
victims of human trafficking. The (2016) notes that they are closely followed by
children, then men. For the children, the most vulnerable are those under social care and opt to
run away. Statistics provided by these awareness organizations indicate that majority of the
traffickers, more than 60 percent, are men. Some of the tactics used as noted by the US State
Department include luring them into marriage with a promise of better life and jobs. Once in
foreign countries, the women are left to suffer and dependent on their male cohosts who strive to
pay for the debts owed by forcing the women into prostitution. Close to 40 percent of the victims

are trafficked within national borders. These are individuals who are lured from their rural homes
with the promise of better opportunities in the cities. However, once there, the fortunes turn as
they nettle that harsh predicament facing them.
On a global scale, the ILO estimates human trafficking to be a $150 billion industry.
Significantly, there are numerous goods distributed worldwide that are made through child labor.
The estimation by the US Department of Labor notes that close to 150 goods from over 70
countries are a product of child labor, as well as forced labor. The most common goods are
garments and fabric originating from the poor sweatshops. Study overviews conducted by
Honson (2013), Taplin (2014), Robertson, Di, Brown, and Dehejia (2016), and Mezzadri (2016)
acknowledge the poor exploitative working conditions that sweatshops workers are subjected to.
Besides long working hours, these workers operate in dangerous conditions. For instance, Taplin
(2014) notes that a building collapsed in Bangladesh killing more than 1100 workers. These
workers are paid peanuts and are exposed to chemicals that are harmful to their health. Attempts
to raise awareness of the poor exploitative working conditions remain futile as Mezadri (2016)
notes that sweatshop workers in Cambodia who were on strike were shot. Garment sweatshops
are among the numerous goods listed by the US labor Department as products of exploitative
labor, which qualifies as human trafficking. Therefore, from the statistics provided in this
overview, it becomes evident that human trafficking is a serious social dilemma that requires the
attention of major stakeholders both nationally and internationally for the vice to be solved.

Contributors to Human Trafficking
Globalization is one of the significant contributors to human trafficking. More than 60
percent of this crime is perpetrated on the global stage. In the current dispensation, globalization

initiatives are coming into full effect. Countries are coordinating to achieve the essential dream
of the 21 st century, which is to create a global village. Various boundaries are being done away
with, which is one of the loopholes facilitating most international crimes such as human
trafficking. In the review conducted by Brewer (2009), globalization is conceptualized as the
development of an integrated global economy. The key aspect of this type of undertaking is that
the participants aim for free trade and removal of barriers in the flow of capital thus enabling
various stakeholders to strive for cheaper labor across borders. While cheap labor is integral in
maintaining low production costs thus cheaper commodity prices, its facilitation in the global
arena without strong regulations has created an ample room for exploitation. The vulnerable are
preyed upon and act as the cheap sources of labor. Brewer (2009) notes that slavery and human
trafficking, in general, are not just by-products of globalization but rather they are part of the
process, deeply embedded in it as the facilitators of the initiative. This can be justified by the fact
that most sex slaves are used to generate money that is channeled back to their local economies.
Another study conducted by Peerapeng, Chaitip, Chaiboonsri, Kovacs, and Balogh
(2013) notes that economic globalization has significantly increased the rate of human
trafficking. Analyzing the greater Mekong sub-region that encompasses areas such as the
Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar, and Lao’s Peoples Democratic Republic, Peerapeng et
al. (2013) acknowledge that globalization has increased human trafficking inflows into the
region. These are areas with no strong regulations regarding the abuse of citizens with illegal
status. Other factors in the region contributing to the quagmire include population and migration.
In another relatable study, Majeed and Malik (2017) also confirm that the economic, social, and
political aspects of globalization are at the center of human trafficking. Their deduction is that
poor countries act as the source while the rich country the consumers. According to Brewer

(2009), trafficking persists as a result of economic globalization due to the fact that it is a
lucrative business. Stakeholders in the global syndicate aim to milk substantial profits from
vulnerable individuals. Significantly, globalization, in general, promotes human trafficking by
hampering all the initiatives that have been focused to fight the vice. In the pursuit of justice, the
perpetrators as noted by Brewer (2009) are always one step ahead due to the numerous loopholes
at the global stage. For Majeed and Malik (2017), as long globalization continues to happen,
human trafficking activities will continue being on the rise. As a result, it is up to the
governments of developing economies to ensure that they provide a socio-economic cover to
their citizens to protect them from slavery and human trafficking.
Poverty is a significant contributor to human trafficking. People from poor regions
marred by poverty are always striving to better their lives. Hard work in such regions is not a
guarantee of success and better living conditions for the loved ones. As a result, majority of these
individuals resort to desperate measures that put them in harms ways. They are easily preyed
upon by traffickers who lure them with tempting offers of better lives. Majority of the victims,
women, are promised to work in fancy hotels, where upon reaching are coerced into prostitution.
An evaluation by Adesina (2014) regarding child trafficking in Nigeria confirms the undeniable
role of poverty in the thriving of the crime. The coverage considered by Adesina (2014) is
regarding the human trafficking activities within Nigeria. Most of the children who are trafficked
within the country are from poor backgrounds from rural areas. Majority of these children have
no parents or guardians to guide them. The lacking education and high levels of ignorance make
them uninformed, thus an easy target for the traffickers.

A subsequent study by Aronowitz (2015) also confirms the contribution made by
poverty. According to the scholar, Sub-Saharan Africa has the largest number of children
engaged in child labor. Majority of the children are trafficked internally within their countries
while a substantial number are also involved in cross-border trafficking. Aronowitz (2015)
attributes the high number of trafficked children to poverty. The scholar notes that from the 43
countries ranked with low development index by the UNDP, 35 of them are from Africa. All the
last 18 ranked countries on the list are from Africa. The issues of poverty arise from the
explosive population growth rate. Majority of the families from the rural regions believe in high
birth rate as a sign of fertility, which is highly valued. However, what such beliefs only do is that
they excel in creating huge families that are dependent on limited resources. Majority of the
children end up lacking education and fall victims of trafficking. Majority of the families are
hard-pressed to the level that they are willing to sell their children to pay off their debts. Other
utilize their children through forced labor as an ideal means of debt payment. Significantly, the
failed initiatives by the governments to create employment opportunities leave many, both
children and adults to be easily exploited for cheap labor needs both in the domestic and
international arenas.
The presence of traffickers in the society is a serious contributor to increased human
trafficking. Majority of these factors are dependent on the presence of traffickers in the market.
Trafficking as noted by the ILO is a lucrative business totaling up to the area of around 150
billion dollars. With such shortcuts towards wealth in a society that places high value on
materialism, it comes as no surprise that people will be willing to do anything to get rich faster.
Part of the get rich scheme is the erosion of essential human values such as dignity and morality.

As result, it is the greedy immoral people willing to exploit the weak and get rich at their
expense. As noted by pundits, the elimination of traffickers will go a long way in substantially
curbing the flow of human trafficking activities. This maneuver might not eliminate other factors
such as poverty and ignorance that leaves majority to be willfully exploited. However, it will
give them a chance to continue fighting on a level playing field without the risk of being
exploited by greedy individuals. It is through the initiatives of traffickers that fighting this vice
remains an issue. Underdeveloped justice systems and massive loopholes internationally make it
hard to stop many of these traffickers who continue deducing new ways around the solutions
implemented. The traffickers might be branded greedy, or they might have originated from
oppressive backgrounds thus hold no high value for human life. Regardless of their motivational
aspects to be in the business, they are the major contributors of the vice. Organizations might
strive to eradicate poverty through employment and better living conditions. However, the
presence of traffickers in the society willing to exploit every weak soul they encounter would
never fully address this social vice.
Lack of Education
Ignorance is the main aspect in the thriving of human trafficking activities. The lack of
education is connected to numerous aspects that contribute to human trafficking expanding. The
majority who are exploited remain unaware of their potential or the rights they possess. They
view the traffickers as their saviors from the harsh poor predicament that was the norm in their
lives. However, with education, a major milestone can be made in the fight against human
trafficking. The first significant contribution of education to better lives is that it makes sure
people have the right survival skills. The role of education in society is to equip the masses with
adequate survival skills. Even without formal employment, educated people can make ends meet

through the diverse skills they have harnessed in their learning. However, without education,
many are compelled to poverty due to the lack of essential survival skills. It is from the high rate
of poverty due to ignorance that majority of the potential victims remain vulnerable to being
exploited. The majority have no way out and a promise of better life without substantial proof of
how it will happen is the only pickup line that the traffickers require. With education, majority in
poor conditions will adequately learn the significance of family planning and stop believing in
outdated values that inevitably make their lives hard. Significantly, they can also know how to
harness properly the resources they possess to their advantage. Taking the case of Africa,
majority of those living in deplorable conditions have the land resources. With essential skills
acquired through education, they can be able to survive without falling victims of human
Another vital contributor of education is that it creates awareness amongst individuals
regarding their worth and rights. In the evaluation conducted by Naik (2018) regarding the
trafficking of women in India, it is evident that the majority of those exploited are due to the lack
of knowledge. They are easily deceived, given marriage offers that are out of their cultural norms
as the incentives. They are exploited by their religious leaders, whom they believe to be always
correct while their true motive is to benefit from them. With education regarding their value,
most of the human trafficking activities will be scaled down. The vice is getting worse each day,
and the best way around the problem is by governments and non-profit organizations to educate
the masses regarding their rights. The gap between men and women has been largely scaled
down by women being educated about their rights. The same can be done for the human
trafficking potential victims, who with adequate knowledge, would not be easily exploited unless
they are coerced.

Demand for Cheap Labor
Labor is a vital production factor and based on the existing principles of microeconomics,
it goes a long way in determining the profitability of business entities. Cheap labor does not
always mean that the reduced cost of production will be passed onto the consumer through cheap
and affordable commodities. In most instances, cheap labor always guarantees the profitability of
the business owner. Therefore, in their quest of increasing their profits and becoming reach, the
demand for cheap labor increases. It is one of the significant contributors to human trafficking
born out of greed. In the evaluation conducted by Temesgen (2014) regarding the root cause of
human trafficking in Ethiopia, the high demand for cheap labor was identified as a significant
factor. Human traffickers willful exploit poor individuals who are paid peanuts to cover
significant workloads. The prominent example of this is the case of sweatshops in the Asian
region where individuals are subjected to deplorable working conditions for salaries that barely
meet the lowest of the minimum wages in some of the developing countries. Giant companies
such as Apple who go for cheap labor in China have also come under scrutiny for their role in
promoting the exploitation of the vulnerable for cheap labor needs. Therefore, if the demand for
cheap labor continues to exist, which is the most likely case because nobody wants to pay for
expensive commodities, human trafficking activities will continue thriving.
Poor Governance
Poor governance is a serious threat to the wellbeing of the masses in the developing
regions. One aspect that distinguishes the developed and third-world countries is poor
governance. All of the rated poor countries, the majority in Africa, have more than enough
resources with limited support from the west to cater for the welfare of their citizens. However,
the governments of the daycare less about their people and center on enriching themselves at the

expense of the masses. Massive embezzlement and mismanagement of public resources have left
many languishing in poverty with no considerable way out. With the leaders less bothered about
the citizen’s tough predicament, traffickers swoop in to exploit the powerless, most who have no
alternative but to oblige. Temesgen (2014) confirms poor governance as a serious contributor to
human trafficking. Significantly, subsequent studies by Niewiarowska (2015) and Adepelumi
(2015) also confirm the role of poor governance in the growth of this social vice. A key trait of
poor governance is corruption. In this case, the leaders that are supposed to protect the citizens
from harm are also part of the human trafficking network. Either through the direct involvement
or through taking of bribes, greedy leaders in developing regions become part of the problem
instead of the solution. Poor governance is also an indicator of inadequate legislation. Fewer
initiatives are put in place to battle this crime thus the countries act as safe havens for traffickers.
The borders become porous due to inadequate governance initiatives thus making human
trafficking outflow remain high.
Violence Against women
Women are the leading victims of human trafficking. However, their vulnerability as
victims of the vice is largely dependent on how they are treated in society. Women, specifically
from the less developed regions have tough lives compared to their counterparts in the west who
enjoy significant freedom. Majority of these women are exploited through crimes against
humanity. A good case of evaluation is India where the patriarchal nature of the society’s set up
means that women are always on the receiving end. They are constant victims of domestic
violence and rape. In the analysis conducted by Sharma, Pardasani, and Nandram (2014) through
the review of pertinent statistics, the rape cases increased by close to 10 percent from period
between 2007 and 2011. That to Kamdar, Kosambiya, Chawada, Verma, and Kadia (2017)

signified that a woman in India was being raped every 20 minutes. The atrocities are not only
limited to mature women but also girls, who make up a considerable percentage of the victims.
The objectification of women as sexual objects and the violation of their human rights coupled to
the rampant corruption and social injustices contribute to many of the Indian women being
trafficked for sexual exploitation. Both within the country and internationally, sex demand
remains high and the toleration of violence against women leaves them vulnerable to human
traffickers, who easily exploit them with no substantial protection being offered.

Countries Affected
Human trafficking as noted is a global social dilemma. Many countries are affected.
However, there those that are affected more than others. This segment of the evaluation
scrutinizes some of the countries that are globally identified as hotspots of human trafficking.
Belarus is a significant player in the human trafficking network. As noted by the CIA
(2019), Belarus covers the three major roles, that is, the destination, the sources, as well the
transit route. Human trafficking victims are prone to forced labor, for the men, while women are
mostly subjected to sexual exploitation. Victims are exploited within the country, as well as
abroad. For those who originate from Belarus or are on transit from other countries, they are
exported to markets such as Germany, Russia, Japan, and Turkey. Those entering Belarus are
largely composed of Moldovans, Ukrainians and Vietnamese. Despite Russia being the
destination for slaves from Belarus, it is also the sources of some that are headed into Belarus.
The facilitator of the rampant human trafficking activities in Belarus is the fact that the state
sponsors forced labor (CIA, 2019). Students in Belarus are forced into errands that do not earn
them a dime. Significantly, the military is also forced to tend to civilian duties that do not reflect

on their paychecks. This type of environment where the state already exploits its citizens through
forced labor acts as the perfect hub for human trafficking. Based on the role played by the state,
it is hard for Belarus to put in place measures and legal guidelines to battle human trafficking. It
thus remains amongst the most affected countries with human trafficking.
Belize is also a hotspot of human trafficking activities. Similar to Belarus, Belize acts as
the source, transit, and destination of trafficked individuals. The victims are sexually exploited,
as well introduced into forced labor. Belize remains a hotspot of human trafficking because of
the fewer government initiatives directed towards fighting the vice (CIA, 2019). Majority of the
families easily sell their children to traffickers but no substantial initiatives have been taken by
the government. Child sex tourism is prominent in the country, largely involving US citizens as
consumers. Majority of the individuals who are exploited within the country include workers
from Asian countries, Central America, and Mexico.
Burundi is one of the significant human trafficking spots in Sub-Saharan Africa. The
country as noted by the CIA (2019) is the source of children and to some extent women who are
trafficked to other countries. The children are both subjected to forced labor or sexually
exploited. The destination for children sourced from Burundi largely composes of other African
countries that include Kenya, Uganda, as well as outside the continent, specifically the Middle
East. This category of young individuals trafficked largely consists of those that are going to be
sexually molested. For those subjected to forced labor, they are usually shipped to Tanzania. The
types of labor-intensive activities that these children indulge include working on farms, mining
for river sands or stones, construction, or working in the local markets as loaders carry luggage

that is twice their weight. Majority of these children are lured out of Burundi being promised a
better life and education. However, they mostly end up as victims of exploitation and the
government of Burundi has not done anything substantial to curb the vice.
Central African Republic (CAR)
CAR is one of the significant countries in Africa where children are likely to suffer
through forced labor and prostitution. The country acts as the source, transit, and destination of
human trafficking victims. However, coverage by the CIA (2019) points out that most of the
children exploited are from within the country with only a few being exchanged between CAR
and the neighboring countries. The militia groups such as the Lord’s Resistance Army have been
the participants in forcefully recruiting children who are then turned into soldiers. The fate of
many children in CAR is either they fight or become subjected to forced labor. The areas where
forced labor is applied include working in the mines, farms, shops or street vending. For women,
their fate is prostitution. However, some young girls are forced to become domestic servants or
forced into early marriages. CAR remains one of the affected regions because of the limited
government initiatives to end the exploitation of minorities.
Cambodia is a known hotspot of human trafficking. The country and others in the region
have become a subject of numerous scholarly scrutiny based on the role they play in the social
vice. The CIA (2019) indicates that Cambodia is a source, destination and the transit route for
victims of human trafficking. Men and women from Cambodia travel through legal means to
other countries in the region, as well as in the Middle East in a quest to better their lives.
However, once they reach there, they are subjected to forced labor or become unwilling victims
of sexual exploitation. The men are forced to work in the construction industry, the mines, and

factories. Cambodian men who secure contracts with Thai-owned ships are subjected to forced
labor in international waters. They are kept at sea for years leaving their children vulnerable at
home. The children are eventually exploited and forced to beg or become subjects of forced
labor. As for the women, they are lured out of their rural homes with the promise of better city
life. However, they are combined together with those from Vietnam and paraded within tourism
spots for sexual exploitation. Cambodia has tried to put in place initiatives to curb human
trafficking. However, the efforts have not been enough as the minority continue to be exploited.
Iran is a significant player of human trafficking in the Middle-Eastern region. The CIA
(2019) notes that Iran acts as the source, destination, and transit of the victims. The most
vulnerable are women and young boys. The destination of women from Iran for the purpose of
sexual exploitation is largely the European region. However, other areas such as the UAE are
also reputable markets. In the domestic scenery, Iranian children are forced to work as beggars or
within the domestic workshops. There are also Afghan boys who are subjected to forced labor in
Iran. They are forced to work in the construction industry. However, besides forced labor, these
boys are also subjects of sexual exploitation where they can be easily molested by their
employers. Iran remains to be a significant part of the global human trafficking network because
minimal preventive initiatives have been adopted by the government of the day.
Other Countries
There are numerous other countries from various continents that are also hotspots of
human trafficking activities. These countries differ in their implementation strategies based on
the prevailing conditions. One such country as noted by the US State Department (2019) is
Brazil. Traffickers in Brazil have learned the art of using religion to their advantage. They make

the potential victims join the groups or cults where they are eventually subjected to forced labor.
Areas, where the forced labor is applied, is within farms, restaurants, or factories (US State
Department, 2019). Significantly, Ethiopia is also marred with internal incidences of human
trafficking. Studies covered on Ethiopia, for instance, the one conducted by Temesgen (2014)
notes that parents from rural regions are deceived into having their children sent to the cities for
domestic work. The message passed to the parents is that the children will work, go school, and
have their wages sent back home. The other notable country as indicated by the US State
Department (2019) is India. India is a country that has been marred by violence against women.
As a result, there is no big deal in the social set up when women are visualized as mere objects at
the mercy of men. Significantly, with the high level of poverty, many vulnerable individuals are
easily preyed upon by traffickers. The aspect of forced labor is also still evident. Workers are
trapped by their employers who offer them high-interest rates on the loans they take after they
have depleted the minimal pay the get. In the UK, the US State Department (2019) notes that
children are used to peddle drugs while in the US, those in foster care remain vulnerable.

Populations Affected
Any individual can fall victim of human trafficking depending on the motive of the
traffickers. However, for the prevalent reasons that include sexual exploitation and forced labor,
the young energetic men and women, as well as children remain at risk. As noted in the overview
statistics, the most affected are women and young girls. Women are easily preyed upon by
traffickers where they fall victims through deception or coercion. Women are then followed by
children, who based on their status, ever remain vulnerable to the vice. Unlike adults, children
cannot defend themselves when abducted. Significantly, they easily fall for the lies used by
traffickers regarding getting to leave better lives. The last significantly affected category by

gender basis is young boys. Most of these budding young men are largely targeted by traffickers
as a source of cheap labor. The majority are forced to become young soldiers by militia groups or
forced to toil through hard labor working in the mines, construction, and the agricultural sector.
By considering the race factor, Gonzalez (2017) indicates that the most affected race are blacks.
The blacks are largely represented in both categories, as the victims, as well as the perpetrators.
However, it is important to note that the affected populations, either by gender or race are
determined by the reason behind trafficking. For instance, when it comes to labor needs, it
remains understandable why the blacks, specifically from Africa are exploited nationally or
internationally. However, Asia being a hotspot of the vice, the majority of the populations
affected there are linked to sexual exploitation or organ extraction.

Prevalent Types of Trafficking
The Interpol (2019) notes that there different types of human trafficking activities. The
most recognized ones include forced labor, sexual exploitation, forced criminal activities, organ
removal and people smuggling. The top five prevalent types of human trafficking vary and are
categorized differently by various entities. However, despite the minimal differences, there is a
consensus regarding the top two types. As noted by various pundits, including the US State
Department (2019), trafficking for sexual exploitation is the most prevalent type. Within his
analysis, Brewer (2009) noted that sexual exploitation has been significantly developed to the
level that money generated abroad is strategically channeled back to the victim’s country of
origin. There are brothels that have become a way out for many in the poor regions thus fueling
further human trafficking for sexual exploitation. Victims no longer have to be trafficked to other
countries but rather are concentrated within urban centers where tourists and other interested
parties can easily access them.

Second to sexual exploitation is forced labor. However, in some instances, forced labor is
ranked as the prevalent type of human trafficking closely followed by sexual exploitation. In
other regions and countries such as Brazil and majority of the African countries, forced labor is
the leading activity of human trafficking. The demand for cheap labor is increasing with each
passing day as companies strive to minimize the production costs. As earlier noted by the US
Labor Department, the number of goods produced through forced adult and child labor are
significant in the market. Therefore, with businesses always aiming to maximize their profits
through cost-effective production methods, the prevalence of forced labor will always persist.
There is also debt traps. This a tactic utilized in India and other Asian countries to trap potential
victims of human trafficking. Debt trap is applied to both men and women. For the men, it is the
small loans they take with high-interest rates that leave them enslaved to their employers. For the
women, it is the strategic favors from their traffickers that leaves with huge amount of debt that
is only payable through sexual favors.

In summary, it is evident that human trafficking is a significant social dilemma in the
current dispensation. Human trafficking is considered as the recruitment of people into
exploitative scenarios through the use of force and violence, abduction or deception. Victims of
human trafficking include women and girls, children, and boys. The victims are subjected to
harsh inhumane conditions that include forced labor, sexual exploitation, organ removal,
domestic servitude, and criminal activities. Some of the major contributors to the crime include
globalization, poverty, lack of education, presence of traffickers, poor governance, and the high
demand for cheap labor amongst other factors. Although human trafficking is a global problem
affecting most countries across the globe, there are some that remain hotspots of the crime. They

include Cambodia, Belarus, Central African Republic, Burundi, and Brazil amongst others. The
most common types of trafficking include sexual exploitation, forced labor, and debt trap. With
no reputable framework in place to fight the vice, there is need for both local and international
actors to coordinate their resources and initiatives in eradicating the vice.


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