Criminal Law Sample Paper on Juvenile courts for adult offences

Juvenile crimes vary from petty vandalism to violent homicides that are handled by juvenile justice system and not by adult courts yet they are as serious offences as those committed by adults. What attracts debate is why children and more often teenagers should be treated differently by the justice system for crimes that adults get severe punishments (Tonry, 1995) In fact, the Supreme Court has on several occasions been called upon to make pronouncements concerning the subject. In this regard, it had to decide in 2012 whether it is appropriate to sentence juvenile offenders to life in prison without parole (Lerner, 2012). Indeed, the arguments that were put forth and the division within the court itself show how complex it is to draw a line between justice and cruelty and further to understand why children and adults receive treatment by the system. More often, teenagers are involved in violent crimes that attract the punishment of life imprisonment among adults. However, majority of judges going by most verdicts are of the opinion that immaturity, impetuous behavior of juveniles as well as their ability to reform makes them different from adult offenders (Lerner, 2012).

Question two; Outsourcing jobs to people in foreign countries

The first textile industries in the U.S were the work of immigrants from the United Kingdom (Lamphere, 1987). In later years especially, after the civil war, the textile factories relocated to the South where workers were not in unions and were willing to take lower wages. Essentially, the culture of outsourcing for jobs from areas with cheaper labor and unfair trade practices was born. The tradition continues to date with manufacturers, companies, service businesses and professionals relocating or outsourcing to markets outside the country (Kirkegaard, 2007). They outsource labor from such nations as Mexico and Indonesia where they find large numbers of workers who work for wages lower than the U.S minimum wage. As a result, thousands of jobs are leaving the country to other countries and majority of the laborers are exploited, working more hours for less pay (Lamphere, 1987).  Undoubtedly, it is a weighty matter that the U.S government should pay attention to,tonot only protect jobs at home, but ensure there is no cooperation in trade with countries that have unfair labor laws.

Question three: Trade and Human Rights records

Debates about whether the United States should stop trade with countries that have poor human rights records is a continuous one and the government takes differing stands depending on the nation in question. The U.S stand was very firm against apartheid South Africa, has taken different approaches regarding China and Myanmar (McCrudden, 2004). Whereas in South Africa, there were economic sanctions, the same does not apply to China and Myanmar. Particularly one issue that continues to dominate the international regarding trade and human rights is labor standards. There are legitimate concerns about levels of freedom of association, the right to organize and bargain collectively, freedom from forced labor and minimum age among children in some countries. However, these are issues that countries can address domestic without the external pressures through trade sanctions. In fact, governments should concentrate at encouraging each other to eliminate such challenges internally (Keck &Sikkink,, 2014). Indeed, this is the spirit exhibited in the negotiations by countries across the world to adopt the General Agreement on Tariffs (GATT). Through GAAT, the issues of tariff reductions and rules and regulations were agreed. However, it does not deal with labor standards and numerous American governments have tried unsuccessful to have it include. Undoubtedly, human rights crusaders would like to a see situation where countries that have poor human rights records do not benefit economically from the U.S but more often governments have to look at issues depending on the prevailing circumstances.



Keck, M. E., &Sikkink, K. (2014).Activists beyond borders: Advocacy networks in international politics. Cornell University Press.

Kirkegaard, J. F. (2007). Offshoring, outsourcing, and production relocation-labor-market effects in the oecd countries and developing asia.

Lamphere, L. (1987). From working daughters to working mothers: Immigrant women in a New England industrial community. Cornell Univ Pr.

Lerner, C. S. (2012). Sentenced to confusion: Miller v. Alabama and the coming wave of Eighth Amendment Cases.Geo. Mason L. Rev., 20, 25.

McCrudden, C. (2004). Using public procurement to achieve social outcomes.InNatural Resources Forum (Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 257-267). Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Tonry, M. (1995).Malign neglect: Race, crime, and punishment in America. Oxford. Oxford University Press