Some of the theories in the article “Organized Crime” are the social disorganization and social control theories (Wilson, 2012). The social disorganization theory is among the significant theories generated by the Chicago School, associated with ecological theories. This theory directly connects the levels of criminal activities to nearby environmental features; a central tenet of this theory is that place is of great concern. This theory is significant to the concept of organized crime as the residential setting of a person is a major aspect determining the possibility of that individual engaging in criminal behaviors. Social disorganization theory proposes that, amid the causal factors of an individual’s later criminal behavior, a place of residence is as important as or more considerable than the individual’s personal attributes (for instance, age, sex, or ethnicity). For instance, this theory advocates that people from underprivileged vicinities partake in a subculture that supports felony, and that the youthful individuals gain criminality in such a social and cultural environment.Studies can reveal the spatial distribution of negligence and felony, but they cannot clarify the outcomes. Certainly, such studies have frequently been employed in politics to ascribe immorality to some residents or races (Paraschiv, 2013). The social disorganization theory evaluates the impacts when a society is not capable of conforming to common standards and to resolving the setbacks of its inhabitants. Henry McKay and Clifford Shaw employed social disorganization theory in affirming that criminal activities occur not at a personal level, but as a normal reaction by normal people to abnormal situations.In the criminal justice system, social control theory affirms that developing the practice of socialization and communal knowledge generates self-control and decreases the tendency to partake in conduct identified as unsociable. The social control theory developed from functionalist theory of criminal activities and was formulated by Ivan Nye, who articulated four central tenets of this theory. These tenets encompass direct, through which penalty is threatened or imposed for illegal activities and parents, folks, and people in power reward conformity. The second tenet is internal where a youthful person desists from crime through the ethics or ego. The third tenet is indirect by which there is recognition with the people who manipulate performance, for instance, since a criminal act may give rise to pain and disappointment to parents, siblings, and close relatives. The fourth tenet is control via requirements’ fulfillment; that is, when the entire basic requirements of a person are satisfied, there is no significance in criminal the action. Social control theory advocates that the affiliations, dedications, principles, norms, and convictions of persons persuade them to abide by the law (Albanese, 2012). These theories are noteworthy to the perception of organized crime since if ethical codes are interiorized and people conform to them, and have a stake in their broader society; they will willingly restrict their tendency to commit criminal activities.Both social disorganization theory and social control theory seek to comprehend the manner in which reducing the chances of criminal behaviors arising in people is achievable. These theories do not take into consideration motivational concerns, merely articulating that people can decide to take part in a broad array of criminal actions, unless the array is restricted by the practices of socialization and collective learning. On this note, ethical motives are generated in the formation of social rank, attributing costs and outcomes to selections and denote some as malevolence, immoral or unlawful (Wilson, 2012). If a society is not self-strategizing and if it is not perfectly planned by outside authorities, a number of people will undertake unlimited liberty to articulate their inclinations and wishes, frequently leading to criminal organizations.
Albanese, J. S. (2012). Deciphering the linkages between organized crime and transnational crime. Journal of International Affairs, 66(1), 1-16.
Paraschiv, G. (2013). Conceptualizing Transnational Organized Crime. Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 8(2), 173-178.
Wilson, M. D. (2012). Organized Crime. Sciences360.