Sample Research Paper on History of Juvenile Justice System

Juvenile justice system is a branch of the court and the justice system that is responsible for handling offenders who have not attained the age of being adults. The history of the juvenile justice system can be traced to the 18th and 19th century, during this time, convicted minors were jailed and mixed with adults in overcrowded confinements (Zehr, 2015). Thomas Eddy and John Griscom formed the Society for the Prevention of Pauperism, this was a movement that advocated for the separation of kids from adults in the correction facilities (Zehr, 2015). In 1825, The New York House of Refuge was established, this was the first youth confinement facility, later in 1840, twenty-five other facilities had been established. In 1899, the first juvenile Court was established, where offenders of age under sixteen years were convicted (Zehr, 2015).

The original intent for the formation of the juvenile justice system was to promote the conversion of youth offenders into productive members of the community by rehabilitating them through individualized justice (Taylor, 2014). The individualized justice included the warning, prohibiting, and training them in a confined facility and later integrating them back into the society. Additionally, it was intended to prevent the minors from engaging in criminal activities in the future (Ogletree Jr, 2015). The reason for the creation of this system was to prevent the juveniles from being convicted and judge like adults. Further it was created to prevent the application of laws that the minors do not understand in the dispensation of justice. This system is similar to the adult justice system since accused in both system have a right to attorney services. Further, lawyers in both systems have the right to cross examine witnesses and accused in both system have the right of protection from self-incrimination. However the two system differ, the juveniles have no option of jury system, additionally, minors are not usually convicted of committing crimes but rather they are convicted for delinquent acts (Ogletree Jr, 2015). If a convicted minors abide by certain rules their record may be erased when they turn 18 year, this does not occur for adults.

Age of criminal responsibility is an age limit below which an individual is believed not to be in a position to commit criminal offense. After attaining this age, offenders are believed to have committed a crime knowingly and therefore, the excuse of ignorance does not play a part anymore (Ogletree Jr, 2015). In the U.S., the age of criminal responsibility differs from state to state, with thirty-three states putting no limit to this age. Texas raised the age of criminal responsibility from seventeen years to eighteen and therefore, it implies that below this age accused are charged in a juvenile court and they are rehabilitated at a juvenile facility

Neurobiological evidence suggests that the brain of children under the age of eighteen is under development and it has not attained maturity. At this stage, the minor’s decisions are greatly influenced by external forces including peers and the environment. Therefore, their decision-making skills and impulsiveness is influenced by the external factors, implying that the decisions to commit a crime may not be an individual decision, but a result of external forces (Taylor, 2014). The supreme court has incorporated the evidence of brain development in its judgment by hence prohibiting death sentence for juvenile and also abolishing the life- without- parole sentences for this group of offenders. Detention of youths at a young age increase the chances of reoccurrence of crime in the future, this is because many of the youths get hardened and are hence capable of committing crimes in the future (Taylor, 2014).

In my opinion, there has been a shift in the juvenile criminal system where the intention of the system has changed from punishing the offenders to rehabilitating them. This is a shift in the right direction since most of them commit crime due to external influence from peers and the environment. Additionally, according to my opinion, the age of criminal responsibility should be redesigned and increased so as to allow the youth to mature before being convicted.




Ogletree Jr, C. J. (2015). A new juvenile justice system: Total reform for a broken system. N. E. Dowd (Ed.). NYU Press

Taylor, R. (2014). Juvenile justice: Policies, programs, and practices. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Zehr, H. (2015). The little book of restorative justice: Revised and updated. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.