Reasons why girls get involved in gangs
Girls join gangs because of mostly the same reasons as the male. Studies that have been carried out by various scholars’ points out to various risk factors that could contribute to a person getting involved in a gang. These factors include the lack of employment by the youths thus engaging in criminalactivities as a way of fulfilling daily needs. As a result, the level of poverty may compound, or the people may be isolated as a result of poverty, thereby contributing to the possibility of joining a group that would help create identity (Esbensen and Elizabeth 799). Domestic violence may also lead a person to having negative family experiences. Peer pressure may also become as contributing factor as top why people join gangs as well as the lack of parental supervision. Early school dropout and academic failures may also become risk factors contributing to crime involvement.
These risk factors may increase the chances of a young person engaging in crime, though it is not necessary that the above conditions are the requirements for the contributory factors as to why young people join gangs. It should therefore be noted female just as boys join gangs because of varied reasons including the sense of a family. In this he female may feel as if the support and attention that they receive at home is not enough and therefore goes ahead to find solace from another group which happens to be a gang. Gangs promises to give unconditional support to each other and this makes one feel as having a home that one never had. At the same time, homes with limited finances resources may lead to the young looking for other sources of money to help themselves. The gang may promise full financial support to those lacking and therefore becoming a key component of gang formation and joining. Some homes have wrecked and the young female as a result of this including the father’s sexual harassment may join gangs with the idea that she will be protected from such occurrences. Another key issue that may lead to the young females joining gangs is the peer pressure. For one to be part of a particular group there is always the fear oflosing somebody close. The young people therefore join gangs as a way of maintaining friendship and royal support for each other. At the extreme, gang members present themselves as special people distinct from other societal members. This being the case, a person may join such group out of excitement.Other factors that may lead to girls joining gangs include a history of seal abuse and trauma, drug abuse and dangerousneighborhoods that harbors gangs
How girls gangs is different from the boys gangs
The majority of girl’s gangs are said to be involved in co-ed gangs whereby there is dual involvement of boys and girls’ gang. Despite this fact, there are few “all girls” gangs that are usually driven by economic gains. In this, they are more involved in making huge money illegally but unlike the boys, many of them do not like to get involved in unnecessary violence. Boys’ gangs have the members taking key roles in the gangs unlike girls in boys gangs who play the support role. This may include acting as the boyfriend of the gang to fulfil his sexual satisfaction in exchange of monetary gain, drug carrier, and alibi among others. This does not mean that there no girls who take senior positions in the boys club. Just as in a real world, another difference is that the girls gang has to work extra harder to achieve the gangs objective and have to be more masculine to get the respect that they seek. This makes them more prone to physical abuse than the boys’ gang.
Why girls exit gangs
Leaving a gang is the other members of the gangs may kill an easy undertaking as one, one may face the adaptation challenges among other factors. Majority of girls lave the gangs in because of different reasons than the boys’ counterparts. One of the reasons why girls leave gangs is the aspect of age. As a girl leave adolescent, some of them exit gangs having known the disadvantages of joining such gangs. Another reason is marriage, is a girl gets married, she may be forced to adapt to the new marriage life especially when the man is not a gang member. In other instances, some women /girls get involved as a result of poverty, when they get stable jobs, they may exit gangs to concentrate on their jobs. The same case applies when a girl gets pregnant, the child need special care and this forces some girls to leave the gang groups top care for the newborn. Harassment from the other gang members may also lead to exit from the gangs. Imprisonment, hospitalization, and abandonment are also other potential factors that may lead a girl from exiting the gang. These factors differentiate the boys’ gang as they tend to continue with the vices even after they get involved in relationship, children are born and other things.
Gang development in Iowa City
As the need for better parenting emerged, some of the boys and girls in the neighborhood had started abusing drugs. Some dropped out of school, still some due to poverty, isolation, and peer pressure; they were reckless in the society. As a result, these young people between the ages of 14 and 25 started getting drugs from older siblings in the society usually through friends. This therefore formed the first stage of the gang. They started selling drugs and petty stealing from the members of the public. There was always a leader who controlled these activities (usually older) who was aware of the source and market for the drugs, the places to be burgled and kept watch of the police movements to alert the gang. As a result of the involvement of the young persons, the adult became aware of the youths behaviors but were at least not sure of how they undertake their business since they claimed to attend schools, though their grades dropped by time. As a result, more youths were introduced to the gangs through peers and they were promised goodies if they maintained in the gangs. Upon several involvements in drug and stealing episodes, the gangs broke out due to competition and new gang leader of different groups were formed.
Gang prevention and control model
The zxt (not the real name) comprises of sixty four members who are headed by their boss and other coordinating members who are generally regarded as the generals. In case an attack want to be carried out, the leader usually summons the other cell generals to attend a briefing meeting whereby all logistical issues are ironed out including the logistical issues as they call them that include collision with other members, police threats and public awareness of their presence. The gang deals in various vices including the sale of drugs, theft, violence attacks, though rare and vehicle smuggling. The gang composition entails school dropouts, drug addicts, ex-prisoners, people who may seem honorable and other street persons (Gover and Richard 115). The aim of the control model is to identify this category of a gang in order to device a corrective implementation program that would help prevent and control the gang activities. According to the gang, its membership is a lifetime commitment and has been reinforced through various identification that includes tattoos, and characterized by factors like intimidation and use of force by the members. Any person who defects from the group is likely to face retaliation from the other members and morgue rule (option where one only leave the group through death) applies.
Theconflictsarising out of the gang is the control problem where some of the new entrants are severely oppressed and especially girls who are rapped and forced into chain sex episodes. These girlsespecially have come secretary to the facility indicating that they would leave the group if proper mechanisms were put in place that would help them flee from the gang and start new life. Some of the girls (three) have already been impregnated during their initiation state despite the fact that they were not aware of what the group was like before they were introduced by their peers.
Strategies to address youth gangs
Positive youth development
Collaborating the community model through enhancing positive youth development could improve the overall effectiveness of the model by making the individual prevention level more targeted, more practical and also cost effective. When the youths are connected to a meaningful pro-social opportunity hub, relation, and asset development, theywill be less likely to engage in substance abuse, drops out of school or lead to delinquency. In this case, the approach should enhance positive features in the youth developmental environment and not trying to reduce the negative aspects that the youth may be facing. This would lead to positive youth development by allowing the youths to engage in variousprosaically and developmental activities and opportunities. This in turn would go along into helping the youths become more oriented, more focused and more engaged. This informed approach could help the gang involved youths to have a lasting pro-social attachment to the adults and other peers thereby making them develop social competences as well as the sense of belonging. In this a school ought to be provided for the youths to get oriented withnew learning skills, and learn what it means to be valued by others who have particular skills. Positive youth development also entails equipping the youths with job experiences and job readiness. They should be engaged in community and civic activities that would enable them benefit from such involvement. Through these initiatives, the youths may be able to learn that here are other positive ways that a youth can engage in and have fun without necessarily engaging in a gang and breaking the law.
Positive development of the youth would also help them create a health relationship characterize by theyouthssee in past their self-interests and appreciating the community as well as the society. This would involve interactions at various levels including the family, school, and the community, thereby leading to the development of competence, character, connection as well as confidence and compassion. This would help the society as the youths develops strategies to nurture and sustain the socially equitable institutions. For this to happen, the community must be able to create sustainable structures that provides the youths as well as the gang members to support the opportunities and activities of the youth.
Under the positive youth development, medical model treatment could be appropriate for certain youths who are subject to the juvenile system. As indicated, the youths get involved in gang activities for simple reasons like the fear of personal safety, thrill seeking experiences, defying authorities, school dropouts, and a system of social degradation. Youths who are subject to these conditions may not be able to respond to medical treatment and therefore requires psychological treatment and be submissive of the invasive attention of the professionals. Forcing the youths to undergo therapeutic or other medical oriented programs would provoke increase of antisocial posture rather than reducing it
Community justice entails the identification of a community engagement, which entails community mobilization. Programs under this facet entail the community creating a steering committee and other linkages with other community groups. This program may not entirely be successful but is moderately important in addressing the community order. Under this, the development of public safety does not entirely depend on the law enforcers but is important when the community comes together in a participatory process and the stakeholders embark on collective problem solving, to promote and improve the community capacity as well as to heal the social ills that are associated with crime in the community. . In this form of model, the community members becomes part of the healing component through problem identification and become active partners in the process. The citizens build a platform for performance measurement, clarify society’s priorities and also encourage community accountability for performance. This approach would articulate the voices of the community thereby improving the life of all the members in that community. The community voice in this case would be achieved through deliberations between various stakeholders about the common good and communication between members. Through such deliberations, new information’s are obtainedon problems facing the community including the youth gangs and the capability of the government as well as the community solve such problems are highlighted. Partnership therefore brings people together with a common mission and the solutions to the social ills in the community are developed from the proactive participation andcommunity driven origins apart from the professionally defined interventions or the bureaucratic approaches. Unlike the traditional crime prevention efforts where the government is the sole implementer, and only requests the community for inputs about their plans and policies, there is rarely integration between the government agencies and the local communities in decision making structures. Achieving equality when using government oriented mechanisms is more difficult when trying to demonstrate program flow of funds from the government. This is because the programs that are oriented locally within the co communities are likely to attract more trusts between partners, the needed resources, as well as gain better success in achieving the set communityobjectivesunlike the governmentoriented style that seems autocratic. Community approach on justice relies on community organization including the agencies and associations that have clear intentions in maintaining and keeping the community free from social ills. The community may be meeting once or twice a month and may have different volunteers from the neighborhoods who address the community issues and liaise with the community as a whole in case of a serious happening. In community justice model, the first step involves the definition of immediate parties who are subject to the criminal act or criminogenic situation. The stakeholders experiencing the crime situations range from the supporters of the victims, the victims among others. The offenders may in this case be school students, broken home families among others. Since the aim of community justice is to articulate the voice of the community by solving the community issues in an effort to improve the life of each members of the community, the available stakeholders can be diverse. But would generally involve all the affected due to geographical proximity or emotional connection to the issue.
Through creating youth development activities, the youths ought to be mobilized to actively engage in productive undertakings. Mobilization involves the community, which in turn acts as the active agent responsible for responding to the gang violence. In relation to gang prevention, , various objectives including broader assessment of the gang problem, helping the community clarify priorities and at the same time developing strategies to prevent the young from joining the gangs would be appropriate. This would be made possible through dire counselling, providing the gang reformed members with job skills as well as employment opportunities. It would also entail empowering the communities to adopt better measures of addressing the youth’s problems.
Capacity building is also another strategy that may be applied in the model of crime prevention and control to combat crime as a short term and long term measure. Capacity building is inherent to successful mobilization and therefore the community is able to define its goals, coordinate towards an anti-gang strategy to address the gang issue. This approach of capacity building must be without the myth that the community has the capacity or one does not have and the other that does not have poses a challenge in developing it. The community members who are reluctant in solving community gangissues could be educated on the issues and be told of the implications of not being active in the process as this would help revitalize their commitment. . Transformational leadership is therefore key to addressing these gang related issues and prevention strategy.
The model that is made from positive youth development and the community justice could impact the community positively in families and in the community. However, is success depends on the effectiveness of the organization of the diverse community stakeholders and the contributions they make towards finding a lasting community problem. The interventions should be community oriented as well as community led. At the same time, the appointed approach should be socially engagingand attaching. This could also be achieved through mobilization of the community resources towards meeting the interests of the youths.
Esbensen, Finn‐aage, and Elizabeth piper deschenes. “a multisite examination of youth gang membership: does gender matter?*.” criminology 36.4 (1998): 799-828.
Gover, Angela R., Wesley G. Jennings, and Richard Tewksbury. “Adolescent male and female gang members’ experiences with violent victimization, dating violence, and sexual assault.” American Journal of Criminal Justice 34.1-2 (2009): 103-115.