Can you think of examples in which religion and religious values shape problems between two countries?
For a long time, the difference in opinions and beliefs between religions has resulted in conflicts and problems between countries. The Jews, of the religion of Judaism, are believed to have moved to countries such as Iraq, Iran, and other parts of Asia. Judaism supports the opinion of ‘an eye for an eye’. This meant that a person who killed another ought to be killed too. On the other hand, Christianity opposed the idea of ‘an eye for an eye’ and instead supported the opinions that ‘if a man slaps you on one ear, give him the other too’. A large population of Christians settled in Rome, presently Italy, though they later spread to other parts of the world. It should be noted that the religious differences and values mentioned above has shaped up problems between Western countries such as Italy and Middle East countries such as Iraq.
Using the example of Moses in the Old Testament and Jesus in the New Testament can you think of why Judaism and Christianity might view capital punishment differently?
In the Old Testament, Moses set a justice system that stated that someone who takes the life of another must be put to death too. The Old Testament teachings are inclined to Judaism hence a conclusion can be made that Judaism supports the view of capital punishment. In the New Testament, through his teachings, Jesus said that people should not resist their evil neighbors, but instead should love them. This is a justification that Jesus’ views that are inclined to Christianity are against the view of capital punishment. It is for these reasons that Judaism and Christianity view capital punishment differently.
How does an individual’s religious and philosophical definition of the “nature of man” shape the way that person views justice?
Religion defines ‘nature of man’ as man’s character and efforts to account for injustice and to outline proper responses to injustice. Thus, the definition makes an individual view justice as a channel to proper life. On the other hand, philosophy defines ‘nature of man’ as man’s ability to cope up with the surrounding; hence, the definition makes an individual view justice as a practice that is only applicable to particular occasions.